Treatment for lung cancer includes all the known methods in modern oncology: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and their various combinations, called the combined method of treatment. There are also some other additional methods that are used in conjunction with the above and more effective.
Surgical treatment of lung cancer was shown in several histological forms of cancer. In cases of treatment of non small cell lung cancer surgery is carried out approximately every fourth patient, because in addition to the availability of certain features of the tumor and its growth, it is necessary to take into account the patient's age and other parameters. Usually, surgery involves removing the tumor along with part of the lung (lobectomy) or the entire lung. If necessary, both clean and regional lymph nodes. The success of surgery depends on factors such as location and type of tumor, presence of metastases, the patient's age, proper selection of treatment methods.
Non-surgical treatment of lung cancer in its effectiveness is still inferior to surgical treatment, but evidence for their implementation is much wider. The aim of chemotherapy is usually an isolated containment of disease progression and improve quality of life. Radiation therapy as an independent type of treatment is commonly used for the same purpose. If the tumor is in its anatomical and histological features can be removed surgically, but surgery is contra-indications for, the use of tumor radiotherapy, which often leads to significant reduction of its size. For radiation therapy used powerful rentgenoterapevticheskie installation gammatrony, betatrons, linear accelerators. In the chemotherapy used polihimoterapiya drugs such as ...
Preoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy may increase the chances of successful treatment. This is achieved by the fact that these methods allow and reduce the size of the original tumor, and to fight metastases. As a result, radical surgery is becoming more successful. Today, the search for the most effective combinations to use them to improve 5-year survival.
Special mention should be small cell lung cancer. To treat this type of cancer surgery is usually not used and is associated with an extremely high propensity to metastasize small cell lung cancer. Even in case of limited small cell lung cancer 5-year survival rate against a background of chemotherapy does not exceed 10% of patients. In the event of widespread small cell lung cancer, as well as in the case of non-small cell variants in stage IV disease the 5-year probability of survival is approximately 1% of cases, and prolong life in most of these patients is between 10-15 weeks. Radiation therapy of small cell cancer can be used as an adjunct to chemotherapy. It is usually performed after chemotherapy and has a maximum effect with a limited form of cancer.
Palliative effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is to reduce the size of the tumor and, consequently, reduce the symptoms of cancer, especially pain.
Forecast. Lung cancer is always a serious prediction:
In the early stages of the disease (nonsmall cell lung cancer in the first stage), 5-year survival rate is approximately 60% of patients;
in stage II, 5-year survival rate of approximately 40% of patients,
in stage IIIa - about 15%.
In the later stages of the disease the chances to achieve a 5-year survival rates approach zero.
Similar trends are observed in the treatment of small cell lung cancer: a limited small cell lung cancer yields 5-year survival of 10% and common small cell lung cancer makes the chances of not more than 1% of patients.
Prevention of lung cancer. Given the seriousness of the predictions in the identification of lung cancer, it is necessary to remember the simplest but very effective measures to prevent lung cancer:
Most effectively reduces the risk of giving up smoking. It is believed that 10 years without smoking the risk of ex-smokers returns to the minimum mark.
The fight against radon areas due to some not very complex, but effective - a regular through-ventilation of the room, regular wet cleaning, taping walls and concrete floors wallpaper (or paint), sealed concrete basement of the building, etc.
Refusal of contact with asbestos dust, heavy metals (particularly in manufacturing);
Nutrition. It is believed that a sufficient intake of natural antioxidants (pro-vitamin A, vitamin C and E), contained in the greens, fruits and vegetables lowers the risk of lung cancer.