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Monday, 27.03.2023, 05:00
Main » Organ transplantation » The operation to transplant a viable organ, tissue and cells from one individual to another 
The operation to transplant a viable organ, tissue and cells from one individual to another

The operation to transplant a viable organ, tissue and cells from one individual to another

Transplantation has come a long way from the first, not always successful experiments to date when saved thousands of lives. Transplantation has become an effective treatment for severe diseases of vital organs. In modern transplantation in most cases used organs and human tissue. Also priorities are the development of methods of preserving organs and tissues, improving results matching donor-recipient pairs, the improvement of schemes of immunosuppressive therapy, cell transplantation, xenotransplantation, and artificial organs.

One of the important phases of the operation, which provides much of its success, ensuring the restoration of function is the preservation of the donor organ. The criterion for successful conservation should be the maximum efficiency of preserving the viability and functional usefulness of donor material at extremely long time.

With adequate immunogenetic selection is more likely that the transplanted organ from its own reserves and drugs in the body is able to adapt to the recipient.

 In recent years, is an active scientific research in the area of stem cell transplantation. They are the precursors of different cell types of the organism, that is the first unique "building material" from which later formed the other organs and tissues. The first successful attempt to transplant stem cells in cardiology, orthopedics and traumatology confirm the promise of this new direction.

The number of people needing transplants is growing. In this regard, researchers are beginning to seriously engage in development opportunities to use animal organs and tissues for transplantation to man for therapeutic purposes - xenotransplantation. It should be noted that currently the global scientific community is wary of this type of transplantation, and the reason is not only unresolved issues in the physiological compatibility of man and animals, but mainly in the risk of disease transmission from animals to man.

Scientists around the world are increasingly looking to create artificial organs that could replace these by their functions.

It is important to emphasize that the development of transplant in the state reflects the economic, moral, and scientific-technical level, evidence of quality of care in the country. In order to improve these indicators need to ensure: the further development of existing transplant centers, training of professionals to introduce a more in-depth study of transplantation in medical schools. Transplantation can not exist outside of society, it is necessary to enlist the support of the media who will be in a good position is the branch of medicine.

Transplantation - an operation to transplant a viable organ, tissue and cells from one individual on the other. Organ or tissue transplant is used for the graft.

Donor (from the Latin. Dono - I give, sacrifice) - the person who gave their tissue or organs for transplant to someone else. The recipient (from Lat. Recipiens-receiving, receiving), the person to whom a transplanted organ, tissue or cells of another organism for therapeutic purposes. Donors include: real people who are close relatives of the recipient (parents brothers and sisters) and living donors, with no genetic relationship (husband, wife, friends, close friends). Cadaveric donors - who died suddenly of heart failure (biological death) and those with brain death is ascertained, but the continued activity of the heart.

There are allotransplantation - transplanting organs and tissues from one person to another according to the principle of compatibility. Autotransplantation involves transplantation within a single organism. Xenotransplantation - Transplantation of organs, tissues and cells of animals to humans.

There are several types of transplantation, depending on the location where the transplanted organ or tissue. If the transplanted organ in its anatomical location, we should speak of orthotopic transplantation. In organ transplant elsewhere suggests heterotopic transplantation.

The main thing in determining the fate of the transplanted organ point is the selection of compatible donor-recipient pairs. It is essential that the blood group of donor and recipient match, otherwise the transplant did not take root. Rejection of a transplanted organ is the leading complication in the postoperative period. This is the most frequent and serious of all the known complications of transplantation. The reason for its development are antigenic differences between donor and recipient. The likelihood of this complication was significantly lower in the transplantation of organ from a living related donor.

The operation itself takes about 6-8 hours, and the time during which the transplanted organ may be located outside the body should be as small as possible.

To prevent rejection in the postoperative period are assigned immunosuppressive drugs. This treatment a patient receives a lifetime of the graft, their action should be under constant medical supervision. Depending on the circumstances may change the dose and mode of administration. You also need to know about the side effects of this therapy and to understand that any unauthorized change in dose or discontinuation may lead to the loss of the transplanted organ.

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