Tear-off fractures in athletes - this is the gap area of bone at the site of attachment of tendons. They occur as a result of the strong pull of the muscles in their dramatic tension, sudden movement or uncoordinated defensive reflex movements. A well-trained athletes tear fracture may occur at the beginning of fast movement with force: while throwing projectiles at the start, at the time of separation when jumping, and dismount.
Much less tear fractures occur as a result of direct trauma. Usually the site is detached bone at the site of tendon. Disinsertion of the insertion happens only if the tendon has undergone degenerative changes.
Athletes involved in sports such as gymnastics and throwing the most frequently occurring large tubercle fractures tear the humerus, to which are attached supraspinatus, infraspinatus muscle, and a small circular muscle. With their dramatic tension comes off a big lump and are often displaced under the effect of reducing these muscles. In a direct blow to the shoulder separation can occur without tubercle shift. In a large tubercle edema, a swelling. Allocating hands to the side and turn it inwards impossible and sharply painful. On X-rays reveal a fracture separation of a large tubercle of humerus.
Treatment of fractures in athletes separation is pain relief. Then a hand laid on the abductor pillow and bandage desault for one month. If there is bias, the comparison of fragment and hand immobilized by bus or outlet of the cast.
Surgical treatment is indicated with a large displacement of bone fragments, if you can not compare it. Otlomok fixed to the humerus with a screw. During the throwing and gymnastics occasionally occur tear spinous process fractures of the cervical vertebrae and verhnegrudnyh.
Most often, is detached spinous process of the seventh cervical pozvonka.Lechenie is unloaded muscles are attached to these spikes and wearing a collar Schantz. Fall in the riding and motor sports, with gymnastic equipment, weight lifting, rowing accompanied by considerable stress back muscles and can lead to fractures, pull the spinous and transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. These spikes are attached ilio-psoas muscle and square back. These injuries occur extremely rarely.
If a strong sharp reduction in triceps muscles of the shoulder may occur separation of the olecranon. This injury occurs when throwing, diving, fencing, gymnastics, hockey players have. Edema of the fracture. The elbow is deformed. Perhaps an outpouring of blood into the joint (hemarthrosis). When the feeling elbow sharply painful process, with the divergence of fragments can be felt the fracture line. Extension arm is limited or impossible. Treatment consists of analgesia fracture site. If the displacement is found to impose a plaster Longuet from the beginning of fingers to the upper third of the shoulder on the arm, bent at an angle. Three weeks later, Longuet removed and start rehabilitation. If the X-ray revealed displacement of bone fragments, surgical treatment more often. Otlomok fix screw, loop or needle.
There are fractures of the epicondyle of the humerus with the gymnasts involved in throwing and weightlifting. Flick wrist while playing volleyball, basketball, handball, rugby, water polo, soccer goalies have cause detachment of the rear surface of the terminal phalanges under the influence of the contraction of muscles extensor digitorum. Treatment of separation of the flexor tendon with a bone fragment may be conservative, but the best results are obtained by surgical treatment with bone fragments are firmly fixed needle.
More often tear fractures in athletes occur in the pelvis and lower extremities. Perhaps because the muscles are located in the belt of the lower extremities are more powerful. To frequent fractures include fractures pull peredneverhney iliac spine, to which are attached sartorius and tensor fasciae latae muscle thigh. Such injury is possible at sharp movements in sports, and downhill skiing, dismount, falls. There is pain and swelling at the fracture site. Sartorius and tensor fasciae latae hip, cutting, pulling downwards and outwards otlomok.
There is a sign or symptom Lozinski "reverse." At the same time walking forward sharply painful, and walking back is possible, therefore, the patient is walking backwards. Treatment consists of analgesia fracture site. For unloading the fracture patient is placed in a horizontal position, and bad leg is on the bus in the position of Belair easy recording. Occasionally, when there is significant displacement of fragment perform surgery. The bone fragment fixed pin or screw.
If you stumble while running, promahivanii when you hit the ball in football, when engaging in sports luge may cause separation of fracture of small trochanter of the femur, which is attached to the ilio-psoas. Tension of this muscle occurs at sharp bending or straightening the hip. The patient has pain occurs in the inner thigh. Because of the pain the patient can hold the hip in the flexed position at an angle of 90 degrees. In this position, the pain decreases. For the purpose of pain in the fracture is injected local anesthetics. The patient is placed in a horizontal position, the injured leg on the bus for 3 weeks.
By rare fractures include fractures of the pull of the greater trochanter, which occur in skiers in downhill, tubercle fractures ischium when running and jumping in, detachable calcaneal tuberosity fracture in gymnasts, skiers.