At the beginning of the doctor asks the patient, collects complaints, said the disease and examines the symptoms. After that the examination of the patient. To confirm the diagnosis to determine the level of glucose in the blood.
If you suspect that diabetic nephropathy, the physician determines appoint a urine test for the content of her special protein - albumin. This protein occurs when the kidneys filter function is disturbed, and they begin to pass protein. In addition, to determine the degree of severity of kidney biopsy - a method of study renal tissue, which consists in the fact that the special long needle puncture with a doctor takes a small amount of kidney renal tissue, after which its structure is examined under a microscope.
In the diagnosis of retinopathy performed ophthalmoscopy or fluorescent angiogram. When the doctor ophthalmoscopy using a special apparatus ophthalmoscope assesses the state of the blood vessels of the retina. When a fluorescent angiogram, the doctor inserts a patient in a particular vein of dye - fluorescein, and then we study the retina.
In addition to these methods for the diagnosis of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus using a shoulder-ankle index and duplex scanning.
To determine the ankle-arm index doctor measure your blood pressure at the ankle and shoulder, then these two measures are compared. Normally, they should be identical. However, if the pressure at the ankle is lower than in the shoulder area, maybe you have narrowed arteries of the lower extremities.
Duplex ultrasound scanning to determine the velocity of blood flow and see the structure of blood vessels. this method, which combines traditional ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound.
In the diagnosis of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus are important biochemical blood tests for cholesterol and other blood lipids.