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Wednesday, 17.07.2024, 17:11
Main » Neurosurgery » New treatments for brain tumors 
New treatments for brain tumors

New treatments for brain tumors

Medicine does not stand still, constantly evolving. The same applies to oncology. Currently, doctors are increasingly are adopting new methods for diagnosis and treatment.

New methods of treatment are presented in all tumor treatment approaches - and in radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and surgery.

Among the methods of radiation therapy such innovation is radiosurgery. Of course, the very surgery, it has nothing to do. The name of the method was due to the fact that radiosurgery can destroy the tumor with very high accuracy.

The major problem of chemotherapy of brain tumors is the presence of the so-called gematoentseficheskogo barrier, which prevents the penetration of chemotherapy to the tumor. Therefore, researchers are now working to develop drugs that would help to "open" this barrier and improve delivery of cytotoxic drugs to the tumor.

Another experimental method for chemotherapy - so-called interstitial chemotherapy. This method is a better delivery of chemotherapy to tumors of the brain. It lies in the fact that chemotherapy is introduced by slowly introducing money into the interstitial space around the tumor. This allows the use of chemotherapy, large molecules that do not penetrate the barrier gametoentsefalichesky.

Another type of interstitial chemotherapy is the use of disk-shaped plates containing chemotherapy. They are introduced directly into the interior of the tumor itself. This technique significantly reduces the dosage of the drug, as it is fed directly to the tumor cells and spread throughout the body. In addition, it helps reduce the risk of side effects.

To improve the effects of radiation therapy and dose reduction of the brain used specific drugs that sensitize tumors to radiation. These drugs are called radiosensitizers. Products in this group include metronidazole and mizanidazol.

Gene therapy - an innovative method of treating brain tumors. This treatment applies not only in oncology but also in many other areas. The principle of gene therapy of tumors is that tumors are introduced genetically modified cells. They, in turn, lead to the fact that the tumor becomes more sensitive to treatment, or programmed self-destruction, or they start to produce substances that stop the growth of tumors.

Hyperthermia. This method was also recently used to treat tumors. It is known that malignant tumors are more sensitive to high temperatures, since there are few blood vessels, the "cooling" the tumor. Today, the method of hyperthermia is still under development. In order to heat the tumor tissue is usually applied microwaves or radio frequency electromagnetic energy.

Another modern method of tumor treatment, which is still under clinical development - is immunotherapy. This method of treatment of tumors is based on the amplification of the immune response of the patient in the ratio of the tumor. For this purpose the so-called antibodies. This is a special immune system proteins. They attach themselves to antigens - surface of tumor cells. This is a signal to immune cells, which attack the tumor. In immune therapy applied substances that are normally synthesized by the immune system - it interferons and interleukins.

In addition, the immune therapy is also in the use of colony-stimulating factors. They are used to facilitate patient anticancer therapy. Colony-stimulating factors are used to stimulate the formation of red blood cells, leukocytes, and platelets.

Other preparations of immune therapy of tumors are so-called monoclonal antibodies. Products in this group include Herceptin. This drug belongs to the so-called targeted therapy. This means that it impacts directly on the tumor cells that produce excessive amounts of specific proteins - HER2-protein. The effect is similar to the antibody Herceptin, which blocks HER2-protein in tumor cells.

Is widely used intra-ultrasound. It allows the surgeon to directly during surgery to determine the boundaries of the tumor. This technique is much simpler and less expensive than CT or MRI.

Another diagnostic method that is used in neurosurgery and oncology in general - is positron emission tomography - PET. This method is based on the fact that tumor cells are much better and more specific radiopharmaceuticals perceive. These products emit radiation, which is then recorded.

Physiological mapping - a method in which a doctor determines what areas of the brain are responsible for important body functions. This allows the surgeon to know the consequences of intervention in any area of the brain.

Photodynamic therapy - also a promising method for treatment of tumors. It is being introduced in many areas of oncology, neurosurgery, and not only. The principle of this method of treatment lies in the fact that some drugs make tumor cells are very sensitive to certain light rays. After irradiation in these cells there is a reaction, which resulted in the cells just disintegrate.

Finally, another method of treating tumors is to create drugs that block the formation of cells, growth factors, tumor. These factors contribute to the growth and development of tumors, so their removal may slow tumor growth.

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