Damage is most often exposed to the outer ankle ligaments. This occurs at an awkward movement, walking on uneven surfaces, when the foot is bent inward and tuck in the direction of the sole. In this case, can be damaged ligament between the talus and fibula bones or ligament between the calcaneus and fibula bones.
There are three degrees of damage the ankle ligaments: The first degree of damage - if torn or ruptured ligaments separate fibers. Such damage is often and incorrectly referred to as stretching ligaments, in fact ligaments can not stretch. Second degree - this is a partial rupture ligaments. A substantial part of the ligament is torn, but it does not lead to loss of function of the bunch. Third degree - is a complete rupture ligaments or ligament separation from the place of its attachment.
The first time the extent of damage ankle ligaments patient complains of pain when walking slack, or probing the ankle ligaments. In the area of attachment of ligaments appear edema and swelling. When walking, the patient feels pain, but the function itself is not broken away. Second degree or partial damage to the ligament rupture is characterized by swelling of the spread between the front and outer surface of the foot. Pain during palpation strong, especially in a place strain ligaments. Walking can be difficult because of the painful limitation of movement in the ankle joint, which further aggravated by movement.
In the first and second degree ankle ligament damage on radiographs show no abnormalities.
In the third degree of damage to the ankle ligaments disturbed patient in great pain when you try to step on the injured leg. Edema, swelling and bleeding, and expressed much spread over the entire surface of the foot, capturing even the plantar part of it. Walking is difficult and sharp very painful.
When complete separation ligament sometimes together with a bunch of torn and a piece of bone, ligament which is attached. This section of the bone is visible on x-rays.
As a first aid for damaged ankle ligaments tight compressive bandage is applied over it and chill. This helps to stop bleeding at the break and to reduce the swelling and mobility of the bunch. The first time the extent of damage recommended to wear a pressure bandage for up to 2 weeks. After two or three days from the time of injury shall be appointed physiotherapy (alternating magnetic field, baths, wraps and paraffin ozokerite, massage). Recover within two weeks. In the second and third-degree ligament damage usually causing severe pain that requires analgesia. The most effective is the introduction of a gap region of 1% solution of novocaine or procaine solution with alcohol.
In case of partial rupture of ligaments impose plaster splints for a period of not less than 10 days. Assign physiotherapy and exercise therapy, during which the splints removed. Recovery usually occurs within 3 weeks.
In the third degree of damage to the ankle ligaments when ligament is completely torn from its place of attachment, the patient should be admitted to a hospital casualty department. Superimposed on the joint closed plaster cast for two weeks. Then modify the bandage, in order to be able to take it off during physical therapy, massage.
Treatment in this case lasts about one month. After the patient has ligament damage in two months to carry eight shaped gauze bandage or a supportive joint golenostopnik for prevention of recurrent rupture at the site of the healing ligament.