These changes are found on biopsy - the study of breast tissue, in which a needle with a small piece of tissue is taken and then examined under a microscope.
There may be two types of cell changes.
Atypical ductal hyperplasia - excessive growth of epithelial cells lining the ducts of the breast.
Lobular carcinoma in situ - the uncontrolled growth of lobular cells, which are responsible for the production of breast milk. They are the glandular cells.
The genetic background and family history
Today many, many women find it necessary to ascertain whether they are carriers of the so-called breast cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2). If you find that you are a carrier of this gene, it is necessary, above all, consult with an expert geneticist to evaluate this information in the context of your family. Based on these results the patient may decide that it fits a more aggressive surgical treatment of tumors, or to take preventive treatment in the form of a mastectomy and removal of the ovaries in order to prevent the possible occurrence of breast cancer.
Smoking, diet and stress
Smoking significantly increases the risk of breast cancer. Diet plays an important role as a risk factor for breast cancer. Some researchers claim 30% of all malignant tumors due to improper diet. However, this view remains controversial. Some medical studies have been conducted to identify the link between a diet with high fat and cancer, could not prove this relationship. However, we can say with confidence that a diet low in fat is useful for several reasons:
It reduces the level of "bad" fats (low-density lipoprotein) and raises the level of "good" (HDL).
It helps to reduce obesity (as it is known to be a risk factor for breast cancer).
It allows you to expand the diet in favor of more "healthy" products.
Stress is not directly related to breast cancer, but it affects your overall health, as well as the immune system, which is responsible for the fight against atypical cells in the body.
Women younger than 30 years who were exposed to radiation during radiation therapy, especially radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease (malignant disease of lymphoid tissues) are at greater risk of developing breast cancer. Studies have shown that in young patients, this risk is much higher than the older.