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Wednesday, 17.07.2024, 16:09
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Surgical treatment of brain tumors

Surgical treatment of brain tumors

Surgical treatment of brain tumors is to remove the tumor. In this case, there as in other areas of oncology, maintaining the principle of removing as much as possible of the tumor tissue. Currently, surgery of tumors of the brain took a big step forward compared to what it was in neurosurgery in the past decade. In the arsenal of neurosurgeons came the latest developments of science - laser, endoscopy, high-intensity ultrasound, etc.

Special microscopes, which surgeons use during operations, allow for subtle interference and cause minimal injury to the brain and surrounding tissues.

Stereotaxy - a method that allows access to the necessary part of the brain with great precision. Previously used for that special stereotactic frame in the present time, this procedure is carried out using a computer.

In the surgery of brain tumors, and apply the so-called ultrasonic aspirators. The principle of operation of such device is the special effects of ultrasound power on the tumor, causing it breaks, then use the aspirator sucked the remnants of the tumor.

In carrying out interventions on the brain surgeons use the so-called evoked potentials. They are used to determine the role of a particular region of the brain, so you can know what will destroy it. To do this, using small electrodes is carried out nerve stimulation, and then measured their potential.

The next technology that is used in the surgery of brain tumors - is bypass surgery. Perhaps you've heard this word. Shunt - it is, roughly speaking, the tube that connects the cavity or blood vessels. Shunts are used in neurosurgery to restore impaired circulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. This condition usually occurs when a tumor blocks the current path of the CSF, causing a hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure. Shunt allows to restore the current CSF, which leads to the elimination of headaches, nausea and other symptoms of CSF hypertension.

In order to access to the brain during surgery performed surgery craniotomy. Craniotomy - a surgical operation that removes the top of the skull - his vault. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. In order to remove the cranial vault in the wall of a doctor spends a lot of small bones of the skull openings. Further, through these holes, a special wire saw, a sawing the bone between the holes. Typically, the entire tumor is removed. But in cases where complete removal of the tumor without damaging vital brain areas can not be performed excision of the tumor as possible. This partial removal of the tumor makes its symptoms, but also with reduced tumor mass, which facilitates further treatment with radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

Surgical treatment of tumors can be either the beginning or end of treatment, if the biopsy revealed a benign tumor. However, in most cases, doctors still recommend the holding of additional treatment in the form of radiotherapy or chemotherapy and experimental treatments.

As already mentioned, in modern neurosurgery metal scalpel increasingly gives way to other methods of removing the tumor. This is a laser, ultrasound, cryosurgery (the use of very low temperatures to destroy the tumor) or photosensitivity.

Among the advanced surgical treatments for brain tumors distinguish tumor removal with the use of computer-guided navigational technology and robotic stereotactic laser systems. When you remove brain tumors using a new generation of krioapparaty to monitor the process of freezing and thawing, to predict the diameter of the hearth cryosurgery. New features in the removal of malignant gliomas of the brain provides a method of fluorescence microscopy.

When you remove tumors in some areas of the brain widely used method of electrophysiological mapping of the cerebral cortex. Usually it is used during removal of tumors-Speech Zone, as well as monitoring study of evoked potentials in the removal of tumors of bridge-cerebellar angle. The purpose of this technique - the most important to avoid damage to brain structures during tumor removal.

Laser technology is used in many fields of surgery, and particularly oncology. The laser beam of high intensity can not only cut the fabric, but it evaporated, and coagulate (turn off) the blood during the dissection. In addition, the laser, as opposed to a scalpel is always sterile. Moreover, by using a laser is no possibility of accidental spread of tumor cells from the source to other tissues.

At present clinical study is a method of treating cancer (and not just the brain) as a method of photodynamic therapy. This method is based on the fact that before the operation the patient entered a special drug that increases the sensitivity of tumor cells is the emission of a certain wavelength.

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