Treatment of polyps only operative. No conservative methods, which help get rid of the polyp without surgery, no.
Today, only surgical removal of polyps with an endoscope allows the patient to completely heal. The most common methods of surgical treatment of polyps and villous adenomas of the colon are:
excision of polyps (polypectomy) with the proctoscope or colonoscopy, by electrocoagulation of his legs.
transanal excision of the polyp.
kolotomiya bowel resection or a tumor.
transanal resection of the rectum with the formation of anorectal anastomosis.
transanal endo microsurgical resection of the polyp.
The basic and most simple method of treating polyps - excision is it with colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. For it is introduced into the rectum operating colonoscope. From conventional colonoscope is it different opportunity of introducing him through the lumen of the colon, or direct a special loop. This loop by passing current through it is heated to high temperatures. It "quickly snapped" at the polyp and then the doctor as if he cuts the loop.
Regardless of the method of treatment of polyps, they are used only after special preparation of the colon with laxatives and cleansing enemas. Such training also serves as prevention of complications.
With a significant amount of polyp or malignancy performed excision of the diseased bowel - resection. After this part of the intestine are joined - created anastomosis.
Among the complications of surgery removing a polyp is the most frequent bleeding. Typically it can occur in a period of up to 10 days after surgery, polypectomy. If bleeding from the anus to the notes following the same day after surgery, it may indicate a lack of bleeding during the coagulation of the polyp stalk. At a later date due to the bleeding usually scab rejection (blood clot) in the stalk of the polyp after its removal.
Both early and late bleeding can be either minor or very severe and pose a risk to the patient's life. In this situation requires an urgent re-surgery, which was also performed using the endoscopic technique and consists of coagulation (cauterizing) bleeding vessels. In some cases, coagulation does not help stop the bleeding and you have to perform laparotomy - opening the abdominal cavity.
The next complication that can occur both during operation and after it, is a perforated bowel. In the intestinal wall a hole. The cause of this complication is a deep burn of bowel wall at the site of electrocautery polyp / tumor.
Perforation of the bowel wall leading to the introduction of its contents into the abdominal cavity. It becomes infected. Therefore, in this case one has to resort to a laparotomy, suturing the hole in the wall of the colon and colostomy cast - off this section of the intestine from the passage of stool.
Keeping these patients is the same as in patients with peritonitis, despite the fact that, after appropriate training in the injured intestine has no content. Colostomy is usually close within 2-4 months after the successful healing of the defect.
After removal of all tumors of colon and rectum are studied histologically necessary, which allows to determine the exact nature of the malignant or benign neoplasms.
If, during the histological examination revealed a polyp polyp in a place of transition adenocarcinoma, be sure to repeat colonoscopy with biopsy of the polyp bed for future reference histological or cytological studies.
In case of a bed in the biopsy of the polyp signs of malignancy the decision to radical surgery.
Since polyps are precancerous, and there is always the possibility of recurrence, especially in the first 2 years after surgery, such patients should be taken to the dispensary records and semi-annual check-ups carried out by a doctor, proctologist.
After removal of polyps which have undergone malignant degeneration, the first year the patient must undergo inspected every month, and in the second year - every 3 months. Further examinations are held twice a year.
Recurrence of polyps
In the first two years after excision of polyp risk of relapse occurs in 13% of patients. The risk of new polyps in other parts of the colon up to 7%.
Prevention of polyps
The main methods of preventing the formation of polyps are: regular research changes in diet lifestyle changes
The researchers offer the following tips to prevent polyps:
Eat more foods rich in calcium. Calcium, as it turned out, may have a preventive effect on the formation of polyps and colon cancer, even if you have ever suffered these disorders. Studies show that calcium intake can reduce the risk of recurrence of this pathology in 19-34%. The sources of calcium are milk and other dairy products, broccoli, cabbage, salmon. You should also take vitamin D, which promotes the entry of calcium into the body. Vitamin D is found in fish, liver and egg yolks. In addition, this vitamin is produced in the skin by ultraviolet light.
Eat more fruits, vegetables and cereals. This is due to the fact that these foods contain a lot of fiber and antioxidants. All of them reduce the risk of polyps. Limit your intake of animal fat. People who consume a lot of fat from the diet the risk of polyps and colon cancer is higher than in those who consume less fat. On the other hand, vegetable oils are recommended.
Limit your alcohol intake. Alcohol abuse increases the risk of not only polyps and colon cancer, and other diseases.
Quit smoking. Smoking increases the risk of developing colon cancer.