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Neurology, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Oncology, Obesity, Endocrinology, Vascular surgery - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, description of the disease.

Monday, 25.09.2023, 16:51
Main » Neurology » Poliomyelitis 


Poliomyelitis - an acute viral disease affecting the nervous system. At present, it occurs very rarely due to the fact that adopted mandatory vaccination of children at an early age against the virus, the causative agent. However, the possible occurrence of sporadic cases of disease in people with immature immunity after vaccination, or those who in childhood received medotvod vaccination (due to other illnesses or allergic reactions). People previously vaccinated formed life-long immunity to the three main polio virus and the emergence of the disease is impossible.

Consider the clinical manifestations of disease in cases where the infection is still there, but immunity to it at the person net.Sam polio virus is easily spread by water and contamination is possible through water, food and unwashed hands. Age of onset significantly affects the severity of symptoms: children suffer the disease harder than adults. Initially, when infecting virus affects the gastrointestinal tract: developing small intestinal disorders, fever and slight malaise. Virus from the intestine is absorbed into the bloodstream, and then (on average 2-3 weeks), symptoms of central nervous system (CNS).

The most favorable form of CNS lesions - without the formation of a paralysis. It is characterized by fever, dizziness, headache, rush of blood to the skin. Then there are pains in the back and limbs, and sometimes pain in all muscles, determined by the rigidity and strength of neck muscles. After several weeks of the existence of such symptoms, the patient recovers completely.

More than a worse prognosis is possible if the second form of CNS - with the development of paralysis. In this form there are pains in the limbs and back, paralysis of individual muscles are replaced by the trunk, limbs, neck, ie, expressed their weakness and inability to arbitrary motion. Perhaps as the development of massive symmetric paralysis neck, arms and legs, and "spotted" paralysis - with asymmetrical lesions of individual muscles throughout the body. Usually paralysis reaches its maximum in a day since its inception. During this time, it may be "rising" or "Descending" spread on the body - that is, from feet to neck or back.

Paralysis of the limbs are literally lead to disability rights - the inability to move independently and take care of themselves. In addition, they can lead to dislocation of the joints. This occurs due to the weakening of muscular support of the joint, as well as pathological redistribution of muscle tone in his field. In addition to paralysis of skeletal muscles, may develop paralysis of the diaphragm, throat, tongue, intercostal muscles. These manifestations are especially dangerous because of possible pathology of breathing and swallowing. Such patients need time to transfer to an artificial lung ventilation and to provide food through a stomach tube.

In the treatment of polio in the first place is important absolute rest, which reduce the likelihood of osteo-articular complications. Seek his bed rest and the use of supportive corset. In addition, the use physiotherapy to prevent joint stiffness - hot compresses on the area of painful muscles, physiotherapy under medical supervision. Second anti-inflammatory drugs are used, analgesics and tranquilizers.

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