Hypoparathyroidism is a disease in which the body for some reason is not enough parathyroid hormone (parathyrin) or disturbed sensitivity of tissue receptors for this hormone, resulting in decreased function of parathyroid hormone. This condition is accompanied by attacks of tonic spasms.
The cause of hypoparathyroidism are inflammatory processes in the parathyroid glands, bleeding in the parathyroid glands as a result of traumatic injuries of the neck, strychnine poisoning, lead, carbon monoxide, ergot, hypovitaminosis vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation, in violation of calcium absorption in the intestine, when exposed to radiation.
By gipoparatirozu can cause metastasis of malignant tumors of the parathyroid gland. Sometimes loss of function of parathyroid glands can be congenital hypoplasia of parathyroid glands with in utero growth retardation.
Gipoparatiroz develops in various autoimmune processes:
chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex
multiple endocrine autoimmune syndrome
But more often the cause is gipoparatiroza surgery on the thyroid gland or other organs of the neck when accidentally damaged parathyroid glands. This is especially true in total (complete) removal of the thyroid gland for cancer of the thyroid gland.
Deficiency of parathyroid hormone (parathyrin) or decreased sensitivity to it receptors leads to disruption of calcium and phosphorus. Calcium absorption in the intestine is reduced, the excretion of calcium from bone and decreases the amount of calcium in the blood drops. At the same time in the blood increases the amount of phosphates. Reducing the amount of calcium leads to increased neuromuscular excitation and developed tonic convulsions.
In the long process can develop malnutrition and muscle atrophy. At the beginning of the disease the patient has complaints of numbness and perfrigeration limbs, a feeling of "crawling", tingling, hot flushes to the hands or feet, feeling of "spasm" of the muscles. All these manifestations are amplified under the influence of overheating, cold, physical exertion, with infectious diseases, mental tension.
Over time, there are painful cramps in symmetrical groups of muscles. Most often, there are characteristic spasms in the hands, the so-called "hand attendant." Cramps in the lower extremities appear as "horse-foot," when the fingers tightened to the back surface of the foot, the patient can not take the whole foot, accompanied by muscle tension leg and thigh.
If the cramps spread to the face, there is a "fish mouth" because of the tension in the muscles around the mouth, "sardonic smile", and the propagation of seizures in the chewing muscles may cause them painful tension, leading to convulsive contraction of jaw (lockjaw). Muscles of the abdomen and chest suffered less, but their prolonged convulsive tension arises respiratory failure, which can be life threatening. Severity of the condition usually depends on the level of calcium in the blood.
Emit light, moderate and severe hypocalcemia (decreased calcium in the blood). If gipoparatiroz runs hard and long, joined by changes in the central nervous system (irritability, memory loss, depression). Increased intracranial pressure and a headache, eye discomfort when looking at the light. Sometimes it is accompanied by the appearance of convulsive seizures resembling epileptic seizures. The autonomic nervous system disorders occur palpitations, sweating, abdominal pain, diarrhea.
Chronic gipoparatiroz shows changes of the skin:
dryness and peeling of the skin
characteristic changes in the teeth.
Appear the inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye (conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis), often develop cataracts.
Treatment of hypoparathyroidism.
Treatment of acute attack of hypoparathyroidism is conducted in a hospital. Intravenous solution of calcium or drugs glyukanata calcitriol appointed sedatives (phenobarbital, Relanium) and antispasmodic (no-spa, papaverine) agents.
For the treatment of chronic paratiroza diet is very important. In the food products it is recommended to include rich in calcium and phosphorus poor, as well as foods high in vitamin D (egg yolks, liver, fish, wild rose, cauliflower). Since phosphorus is contained in almost all vital products to reduce its absorption in the intestine of aluminum hydroxide administered that binds phosphorus in the intestine. They are also used various preparations of calcium and vitamin D.
Recently, surgical treatment hypoparathyroidism - transplantation of parathyroid glands.