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Monday, 25.09.2023, 16:35
Main » ENT Diseases » Nasopharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy 
Nasopharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy

Nasopharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy

Adenoidnye vegetation usually found in age from 3 to 15 years, but there are for the younger children and adults. Adenoids are observed with equal frequency in boys and girls, about 3,5-8%.

Adenoidnye vegetation are localized in the posterior part of the body of the nasopharynx, but can fill the entire dome and its spread through the side walls down to the mouths of the auditory tube pharyngeal. They are usually attached wide basis, have an irregular round shape and are separated by a deep cleft in the middle sagittal line, each half is divided by less deep cleft into 2-3 lobes. Normally adenoids soft, have a pale pink color.

The main features of the adenoids are:
  • violation of nasal breathing
  • persistent serous discharge from the nose
  • dysfunction of the auditory tube
  • frequent inflammation in the nasopharynx and the nasal cavity.

Violation of nasal breathing depends on the degree of hypertrophy nasopharyngeal tonsils and stagnation in the nasal mucosa, especially the posterior ends of the nasal cavities due to adenoids. There are three degrees adenoid vegetation:
  • at I degree adenoids to cover third opener
  • at II - to ½
  • at the III degree - to 2 / 3 opener closed amygdala hyper-
  • with IV - the opener is closed completely.

Adenoidnye vegetation extent I do not disturb noticeably nasal breathing during waking the child, but in a dream a few of their volume increases due to greater venous filling, which makes it difficult nasal breathing. Therefore, if the child during sleep breathing open-mouthed, it indicates the presence of adenoids.

When adenoids are frequent acute colds, which often becomes chronic catarrhal rhinitis. The regional cervical, occipital and submandibular lymph nodes are usually enlarged. Children with adenoids are usually bad sleep, snore frequently, they can disturb suffocation due to the sticky tongue. The child becomes lethargic and apathetic.

Adenoids restrict the mobility of the soft palate, which violates the right of phonation and articulation. In the long illness in children lead to abnormalities in the development of the facial skeleton. Constantly drooping lower jaw is narrow and elongated, and the hard palate is formed by a high and narrow. In connection with the incorrect position of teeth broken jaws. These changes give the face a characteristic "adenoid type."

Children suffering from hypertrophy of nasopharyngeal tonsil, over time, lead to abnormalities in the formation of the chest ("Chicken breast"), anemia develops, may increase the size of the blind spot in the fundus, to develop mental retardation. Children are usually absent-minded, they are concerned about a headache, they perform poorly in school.

Treatment of adenoids is usually surgical. Conservative methods are used by only a small increase in the tonsils or contraindications to surgery. The beneficial effect may have climatotherapy in the Crimea and the Black Sea coast.

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