Fracture of the body (shaft) of the femur is under the influence of a direct blow to the thigh area, in the fall on the solid object, the action of an indirect force - bending, twisting.
Fractures of the femur are in serious injury. They may be accompanied by significant blood loss and painful shock. Such fractures are more common in young adults. In accordance with the place of impact force traumatic fractures of the femur occur in the upper, middle and lower thirds of the body of the bone.
By the nature of fractures of the femur can be very diverse transverse oblique helical comminuted.
Go to the femur is attached a large number of muscles, and, depending on the height of the fracture, fragments can move in different ways.
For fractures in the upper third of the diaphysis is displaced medially otlomok peripheral and backward, and the upper otlomok - forward and outward.
When fractures of the middle third of the displacement can be varied, and in fractures in the lower third - peripheral otlomok shifted posteriorly and the upper otlomok - inwards.
A patient with a femoral shaft fracture complained of pain at the site of the fracture, edema and hemorrhage. Function of the damaged limb in most cases broken: Walking on a limb and load is possible. The leg is deformed, and most often is shortened. May damage the large blood vessels in the limb displacement of bone fragments, especially when a fracture in the lower third, when the peripheral otlomok shifting back can damage the popliteal artery, causing significant bleeding. First aid is the imposition of the tire Diteriksa, analgesia and delivery in the casualty department.
Treatment of fractures of the femur.
At the turn of the femur may develop shock, therefore, to prevent shock, pain management is carried out, and at a great loss of blood - blood products or blood transfusions. Compare fragments with femoral shaft fracture is possible, but keep them in the associated state is very difficult. Therefore, for the treatment of this type of fracture is used: Codivilla's extension osteosynthesis use of external fixation devices.
Skeletal traction is applied with contraindications to surgery. It is made with a standard tire Belair. Knitting at the same time conducting a tuberosity of the tibia or the femur metaphysis. Anesthesia is carried out perpendicular to the femoral or tibial bone is performed through the needle and fixed on a special bracket, which then suspended load. The load initially about 10 kg, then reduce it.
Terms of skeletal traction from 7 to 12 weeks. Sometimes the timing of skeletal traction reduces to 6 weeks, and the limb plaster cast is applied to 4 months. The disadvantages of this method of treatment is prolonged immobility of knee and hip joints, which reflects badly on their function.
Therefore, the main method of treatment of fractures of the diaphysis of the femur are operational. The operation is not urgent. First, carry out anti-shock and blood loss, and normalize the patient's condition. Fixation is carried out by means of pins, rods, plates.