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Sunday, 26.03.2023, 11:15
Main » Traumatology » Endoprosthetics of joints 
Endoprosthetics of joints

Endoprosthetics of joints

Prosthesis - an artificial device that replaces the function of an organ. Implant - a prosthesis, which is located inside the body.

Total joint replacement - a replacement of the components of the joint endoprostheses, repeating the shape of a normal joint function and reproduce the joint. Often, joint replacement is the only method that can restore lost joint mobility and eliminate pain in the joint. Within one to two months after the prosthetic joint patient can return to active life.

Modern prostheses practically forever. Installed inside the human body they are able to serve 15-20 or even 30 years, and when worn joint, it can be replaced again. In the world every year it produces about one million implantation of hip and knee more than half a million implants.

Currently, there are prostheses for hip, knee, shoulder, elbow and even the joints of fingers. They are made of metal, ceramics, particularly resistant plastic. Manufacture of artificial limbs is a precision passes and multi-stage control and certification. Requirements for materials of construction joints - it is strength, wear resistance, but they should easily be processed in order to achieve accurate matching of components of artificial limbs.

For the production of metallic stents are currently used:
  • alloys of stainless steel. These implants are fixed to the bone with cement. Cement or bone cement is a special acrylic resin
  • alloys of cobalt and chromium. Of these components are manufactured prosthesis designed to slip: the femoral head, humerus,
  • Titanium and its alloys, which can be fixed in the bone without a special resin. These alloys are not used for the manufacture of sliding surfaces.
  • For the production of sliding surfaces using alumina ceramic and plastic in the form of heavy-duty polyethylene. For the structural parts of the prosthesis materials are not used because they do not have sufficient strength and are able to break down.

Endoprosthesis used in patients with diseases of the joints, leading to loss of joint function. Such diseases include:

  • degenerative-dystrophic diseases of joints (arthrosis deformans or osteoarthritis)
  • Ankylosing spondylitis, mainly affecting the joints of the extremities
  • posttraumatic arthrosis
  • aseptic necrosis of the femoral head and femoral condyles
  • incorrectly fused fractures in the joint
  • false joints formed after fracture
  • arthritis caused by congenital abnormalities (dysplasia and hypoplasia of the joint)
  • fractures of the acetabulum and the femoral neck
  • arthrosis of other origin (inflammatory arthritis in gout and psoriasis).

Total joint replacement may be incomplete or complete. Incomplete arthroplasty is the replacement of the prosthesis at the joint. It is also called uni-polar. Complete or total hip arthroplasty is a complete replacement of the joint at arthroplasty. Before surgery, the implant is carefully selected, taking into account the patient's condition and the type and stage of disease. In most cases, the operation goes well and almost 100% of the permit restoration of joint function to achieve

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