The sclera is the outer shell of the eyeball. Most of it is a protein dense opaque fabric. This is the sclera or white of the eye.
Front sclera becomes a smaller part of the outer membrane - the transparent cornea. Place of transition of the sclera into the cornea called the limbus. For congenital anomalies of sclera syndrome include blue sclera and scleral melanosis. Very rarely occur in the sclera of the cyst, dermoid, staphyloma.
Blue sclera syndrome
Blue sclera syndrome is a congenital hereditary disease associated with impaired development of connective tissue in utero. It is combined with dysfunction of the joints, bone structure, deafness.
In this congenital anomaly of the sclera is very thin, and through her translucent colored pigment layer of the underlying choroid, which is why the sclera becomes blue. Blue sclera syndrome may be associated with other abnormalities of the cornea, lens, iris.
Scleral melanosis, with this congenital abnormality of the sclera on its front surface (the protein of the eyeball), there are dark spots, which represent the deposition of melanin dye. Such patients should be observed regularly by an ophthalmologist.
Inflammatory diseases of the sclera are superficial - episklerity, and deep - sclerites. Most often, inflammatory disease of the sclera occur in human disease, tuberculosis, rheumatism, syphilis, and some other infections, when the organism is stored in the tissue of the sclera with the blood or lymph. Sometimes inflammation of the sclera occurs with metabolic disturbances in the body, most commonly to treat gout.
Episcleritis - superficial inflammatory disease of the sclera. First, there is redness of the sclera area, often close to the cornea. At the site of inflammation appears swollen.
Sore shines through the mucous membrane (conjunctiva) of the eyeball. Typically, sites of inflammation bluish-red color and their surface may be uneven. There are not strong pain at the site of inflammation, worse when touched.
The process takes a long time, but usually the patient's general condition is not violated. After the attenuation of the inflammatory process may remain on the sclera portion or all of the darkening dissolves completely. The disease lung. Function of not suffering. Episkleritov treatment. Necessary to identify the underlying disease, complications of which was inflammation in the sclera and assign it to the treatment. Antibiotics, drugs that regulate the immune system, and sometimes corticosteroids. Absolutely, especially in the acute phase of the decay process is assigned physiotherapy. If purulent process has evolved with the emergence of an abscess, the abscess opened and drained by its cavity. Sometimes there is a need for surgical treatment.
Scleritis - a profound inflammatory response. Inflammatory infiltrate (sealed) is placed at the deep parts of the tissue of the sclera. The patient is concerned about pain in the eye, worse when you turn the eyeball, when viewed from the side, foreign body sensation. Focus of inflammation can be isolated, and may cause many lesions. Often the inflammation extends to the cornea with the occurrence of sclerosing keratitis, iris, ciliary body. Sometimes the outcome of the disease may become a secondary glaucoma.
Scleritis can occur in one eye and then both of them. Chronic disease course with frequent exacerbations. When you join pyogenic organisms process may become purulent, occasionally there is an abscess of the sclera.
After attenuation of acute inflammatory process in its place formed a scar. At the same tissue of the sclera may be thinner and the deposition of the protrusion, staphyloma. In this case violated the normal size of the sclera and cornea sometimes pulls to one side, resulting in a violation may be its normal curvature and the occurrence of astigmatism, but it disturbed nutrition of the cornea. As a result of these processes function can be significantly disrupted.
Treatment of sclerites. Necessary to identify the underlying disease, complications of which was inflammation in the sclera and assign it to the treatment. Antibiotics, drugs that regulate the immune system, and sometimes corticosteroids. Absolutely, especially in the acute phase of the decay process is assigned physiotherapy. If purulent process has evolved with the emergence of an abscess, the abscess opened and drained by its cavity. Sometimes there is a need for surgical treatment.