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Neurology, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Oncology, Obesity, Endocrinology, Vascular surgery - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, description of the disease.

Monday, 27.03.2023, 03:50
Main » Gynecology » Climacteric 

Menopause - menopause - a difficult time for all women, both socially and in the medical aspect. To date, widespread opinion that the complaint, occurring in the menopause, are inevitable and transient. The successes of modern medicine show clearly wrong such an opinion.

Already a few years before the last menstrual period (menopause) in women at first decreases and then disappears ability to conceive. This is due to the gradual ovarian failure, producing fewer female hormones - estrogen, which is very important for the functioning of not only the reproductive system, but also the entire body. Delays between monthly increases and, finally, they stopped. The ovaries stop producing estrogen. And the woman has hot flashes, sweating, headaches, insomnia, pain in the heart, irritability, decreased sex drive, worse moods. Unfortunately, it's not all manifestations of estrogen deficiency in the body.

Approximately after 2-5 years after menopause, there are urinary tract dysfunction: pain during urination and sexual intercourse, itching, vaginal dryness, inflammation of the vagina, urethra and bladder, frequent urination, and other characteristic that is usually applied ( non-hormonal) treatment of these complaints have little effect or no effect at all. Many people complain of dry skin and enhance its rugosity. Some reduced tone of voice, which is particularly concerned about dealing with the singing, teachers and others, are often observed increased growth of facial hair.

Finally, there is a longer post-menopausal osteoporosis. The symptoms develop gradually and reach a maximum after about 10-15 years. In this disease a decrease in mass and bone density. The bones become brittle, increasing the risk of fractures even with small injuries. There are pains in the joints, most often in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The usual treatment for "sciatica", which is assigned in these cases is ineffective. Do not forget the fact that it is post-menopausal women increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, and they are in first place among the causes of death in developed countries.

At present, it is proved that this is due to estrogen deficiency in the body. Thus, by studying the immediate and long-term effects of menopause, the researchers came to the conclusion that the use of hormone replacement therapy, ie, receiving small doses of estrogen to make up for their deficiency in the elderly. Their reception in adequate doses for a long enough time, can significantly reduce or even eliminate most of the above symptoms. Of course, it is impossible to consider hormone replacement therapy as a "remedy against old age," but its use allows a woman to fall worthy of his life.

For hormone replacement therapy in menopause have now the most widely used drugs tablets, although there are patches, ointments, suppositories, injectables, etc. A feature of all these drugs is that they use only natural female sex hormones - estrogen. Therefore, the use of these drugs is accompanied by a minimum of possible side effects. Most of them also contain progestins - hormones needed for the prevention of endometrial hyperplasia.
"Tsikloproginova", "Divina," "Klimonorm", "Klim" - these drugs are available in packs of 21 tablets and are accepted by the scheme, similar to contraceptives: 21-day admission and 7 days off.
"Klim" is especially recommended for women with excess body hair, oily skin is porous, reduced tone of voice and other signs of excess male hormones.
On the contrary, "Ginodian Depot" contains male sex hormones and is used for dry and wrinkled skin. It is used as an injection once a month.
"Trisequens" - one of relatively new drugs. It contains 28 tablets per pack and is taken in a continuous mode
Livian "and" Kliogest "is also taken in continuous mode. Their reception start no earlier than 1-2 years after menopause.
Women with a uterus removed may be used and preparations containing estrogen only. These include "Proginova", "Premarin", "Hormopleks', 'Estrofem', etc. They are usually appointed by the intermittent use.
For the correction of urinary tract function is effective, "Ovestin", available in tablets, candles and a cream and "Estriol" tablets. In addition to a number of hormonal and nonhormonal used drugs.
For the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis using "Miakaltsik", "Ksidifon", "Benefos" vitamin D - "Alpha D3 - TEVA," "Osteogenon" and others.
Correction of the neuro-psychiatric disorders, menopause (dizziness, headaches, irritability, frequent unexplained mood swings, depression, sleep disturbance, etc.) can be carried out as preparations are usually applied by therapists and neurologists (sedatives, etc.) and special by means of herbal and homeopathic formulations. "Klimadinon" - from the extract of the rhizome fitodrug tsimetsifugi having estrogen activity. He is appointed with contraindications to the use of hormones or in addition thereto. The drug is effective at the neuro-psychiatric manifestations of menopause, and has no contraindications.

In addition to prevention and treatment of menopausal disorders and used non-drug means. A woman in menopause should lead a healthy lifestyle, spend a morning, and gymnastics, massage, baths, etc. It should be properly fed, the diet must be sufficient amounts of vegetables and fruit, vegetable fats, dairy and fish products that are rich in calcium. Used and methods of physical therapy: the central electroanalgesia, galvanization of the brain and sheynolitsevoy area, acupuncture, etc. Before the appointment of female hormone replacement therapy should be screened to exclude contraindications to its use. In the process of taking the drugs requires periodic monitoring of their effects.

At what age to start taking hormones? The answer to this question is not unique. In addition to receiving a medical purpose with the appearance of climacteric complaints are currently recommended to start taking after 40-45 years as a prophylactic measure. It uses conventional low-dose hormonal contraceptives (silest, femoden, marvelon, etc.). Acceptance of these drugs allows a woman to smoothly enter the period of menopause and prevent various menstrual disorders, often appearing several years before menopause.

In the process of receiving from time to time (enough time in a year) is held hormonal control, which allows you to set the transition time to receive the special preparations for menopause. Bear in mind that many women using hormones in the menopause spotting occur during the 7-day break in reception, as it happens when using hormonal contraceptives. Due to the fact that most women, especially in the elderly, do not agree with the emergence of periodic bleeding, recent widespread drugs are devoid of these side effects. These include the already mentioned "Livian" and "Kliogest." When you receive a "Trisequens" selection are less common than other drugs.

Thus, today, at the disposal of physicians have a large arsenal of tools for correction of menopausal disorders and intensive research to find new drugs for these purposes.

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