Posture is called the position of the head and torso of man in space, is formed by the skeleton and muscles under the influence of gravity while standing, sitting and walking. The elements of posture: head position relative to the torso, position of the pelvis, foot position.
The main element that affects posture, it's spine. A child is born with a straight spine, and its physiological bends are formed during growth. Initially formed cervical lordosis (curvature of the concave back). The formation of the cervical lordosis due to the fact that the child begins to hold the crown. When a child begins to walk, he formed a small bending of the spine back (thoracic kyphosis) and the bending of the lumbar spine bulge forward (lumbar lordosis). These curves act as shock absorbers, vibration and dampen that are created by motion.
Proper development of bending depends on the condition of the bony skeleton, spine, bones, pelvic and shoulder girdle, and the state of the muscular system. A person with normal physiological curvature of the spine posture expressed moderately symmetrical. Thoracic kyphosis (spine bulge in the rear) is 20 to 40 degrees. The head is straight, earlobes at the same level, shoulder girdle omitted, symmetrical, body straight, legs straighten at the hip and knee joints, perpendicular to the floor with your feet parallel to each other.
There are four types of posture
Hyperlordosis is characterized by intensification of physiological curves. Reinforced neck and lumbar lordosis (arching of the spine forward), thoracic kyphosis (bending backward). Such a posture is accompanied by increased tilting of the pelvis.
Kyphotic posture or so-called "round back" occurs when all the cervical and lumbar lordosis flattened, and increased thoracic kyphosis. In such a posture, shoulders facing forward, sunken chest, and belly jutting. This situation is easier to keep the body slightly bent at the knees.
Shows smoothed flat back of the physiological curves. The back appears flat blades can take the form of wing. With this type of bearing, like a flat spin, there is the greatest risk of developing scoliosis (curvature of the spine in the frontal plane, in other words, sideways).
For spinal deformities include kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis. Kyphosis is a deformation of the spine, which is characterized by the curvature of the spine from front to back, with the spine bulge occurs earlier.
Kyphosis are congenital or acquired. Congenital kyphosis spine are rare. They are caused by abnormal development of thoracic vertebrae. Two variants of vertebral anomalies: reduction in the height of the vertebral body and the adoption of the vertebra wedge-shaped or impaired function and structure of the support structures - muscles and ligaments. Congenital kyphosis may be diagnosed at birth of the child. Usually these kyphosis progressed, despite treatment, accompanied by various complications of the nervous system.
Treatment of kyphosis promptly, but in this case, it is sometimes possible to achieve only a cosmetic effect. Applied Spine fixation with metal structures, plastic surgery on the vertebrae. More common acquired kyphosis. Their causes are associated with weak back muscles and developed in children during adolescence, when muscle growth lags behind the growth of the skeleton. Contribute to the development of kyphosis weakening of the body frequent diseases, low physical activity, the weakness of the muscular system, and various metabolic diseases, inadequate intake of vitamins, especially vitamin D in rickets, and minerals.
Kyphosis, gradually developing during adolescence may be a manifestation of the disease Sheyermana Mau. Infectious diseases of the spine can lead to kyphosis in any patient's age. Causes of kyphosis can be a tumor or a spinal injury. In women after menopause often develop kyphosis due to osteoporosis. The disease is manifested by pain in the thoracic spine, mostly in its lower part. Pain increases with load and decreases in supine position. On examination, the patient reveals the curvature, and in advanced cases hump, which is more noticeable when the patient bends over.
The progressive deformation of the spine can cause compression of the spinal cord and the appearance of neurological complications in the form of paralysis and paresis of the lower extremities, disturbances acts of urination and defecation. In these patients, due to the deformation of the chest and respiratory failure develops. Diagnosis is established by examination of the patient, perform x-rays.
Treatment of acquired kyphosis includes first treatment of the underlying disease, if it is possible. This treatment of infectious diseases of the spine. Prevention of rickets and osteoporosis. Small kyphotic deformity treated conservatively. Assigned to therapeutic exercise, massage, swimming. Some patients, especially children, appointed by the wearing of corsets rekliniruyuschih three-point type, a variety of staples and plaster bandages.
Surgical treatment was shown a small number of patients. Lordosis or deformity of the spine in the lumbar spine with its increasing convexity of the anterior rarer than kyphosis. The reasons for this is lordosis rickets, infections of the lumbar spine, pelvis and abnormal development of hip joints. Treatment consists of treating the underlying disease, is appointed by physiotherapy, physiotherapy.
Scoliotic posture - a posture in which there is a curvature of the spine in the frontal plane (sideways). On examination, reveal asymmetrical standing shoulder girdle, shoulder blades, spinal curvature. If a patient goes into a horizontal position, lying on his stomach, the curvature vanishes. Curvature vanishes, and when tilted. On the radiograph in the standing position bending show, and in the supine position distortion disappears. If scoliosis is found in the child bearing, you must assign a remedial gymnastics, swimming, massage.