Venous catheter can introduce drugs directly into the bloodstream without repeated puncturing a vein. Venous catheter - it is like "entrance" into your bloodstream, which is a thin tube. Typically, the catheter is introduced into the region of the hands, neck or head. The other end of the catheter free, through him, and entered the drug. Sometimes at the end of the catheter may be a so-called "port", which is placed under the skin.
Venous catheter is necessary, first of all to not constantly pierce the vein wall, because of such frequent pricking her injured, inflamed, and on its surface can form clots.
Thus, the venous catheter is used to reduce injury venoyu. Often venous catheter use in cancer patients who require intravenous drugs to enter a long time, for example, chemotherapy, and nutrient solutions, blood products, and more. Another type of venous catheter is a dialysis catheter. It is used for hemodialysis, which is necessary for patients with kidney disease. Hemodialysis allows such patients to filter the blood, because their kidneys can not do this.
Some of the catheter is inserted into a vein rather deeply, reaching its end region of the heart, where blood flow is very fast. Catheters, which have long placed in a container, usually made from a special thin material to reduce irritation of the vein. Preparing to install venous catheter
Usually, before directing the catheter studies are state venous patient. They include:
Duplex ultrasound scanning
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Usually before the procedure, place the catheter does not require any special preparation. When is venous catheter?
Provided that you need a long course of intravenous drug administration, and your veins are thin and weak, you may need to venous catheter. For example, cancer patients may require a long course of intravenous injections, and these drugs can irritate the vein wall. Or if the patient requires a long course of antibiotics. In all these cases is established venous catheter.
Types of catheters
There are four types of catheters, each of which has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages.
Peripheral central catheter, which is set in the vein of his hands, but longer than the short-term
Tunneling catheter that is inserted directly into a broad vein, for example, in the vena cava, through a special tunnel to the chest.
Subcutaneous venous catheter - in the form of a circular device that is installed under the skin of the chest.
The installation procedure venous catheter takes an average of 30-45 minutes. The very process of holding the catheter in the vessel is painless, as in vascular walls no nerve endings. When you install a tunnel catheter may need a little anesthesia catheter insertion site. If you are installing subcutaneous catheter requires a small incision through which the chest is a small pocket, which is set and the catheter.
Usually, after the catheter to the patient it takes about 1 hour for rehabilitation. If the installation of the catheter were placed seam, they are removed, usually on the seventh day.
Complications of venous catheters
Complications most often in the form of bleeding, bruising, swelling at the injection catheter. Sometimes there may be dehiscence. Sometimes the tip of the catheter can jump out of the vessel, whether, and if the catheter stops functioning normally.
Less likely to be more serious complications. This may be an air embolism or thrombus formation in vein, heart rhythm disturbance, puncturing an artery, heart or lungs instead of the vein.
Frequent complication can be infection in the catheter. The most threatening complication is the so-called catheter sepsis. In addition, there may be phlebitis - inflammation of the vein wall or skin infection in the catheter.
If you have these symptoms, you should seek immediate medical attention: