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Main » Psychoneurology » Psychosomatic illness 
Psychosomatic illness

Psychosomatic disorders - a group of disease states that result from the interaction of psychic and somatic factors and manifest somatization of mental disorders, mental disorders, reflecting a reaction to physical illness, or the development of somatic diseases influenced by psychogenic factors.

In modern medicine, psychosomatic medicine are part of clinical, psychological, epidemiological and laboratory studies, which highlight the role of stress in the development of somatic diseases, the relationship patoharakterologicheskih and behavioral characteristics with sensitivity or resistance to certain somatic diseases, the dependence of the reaction to the disease ("behavior" of the disease) from type of personal storage, the effect of some treatments (surgery, hemodialysis, etc.) on the mental state.

State, referred to psychosomatic disorders include not only psychosomatic illness in the traditional, narrow sense of the term, but a much wider range of offenses:
  • somatisation disorder (somatoform condition, somatisation dysthymia, etc.)
  • abnormal psychogenic reactions to physical illness
  • Somatopsychical accentuation at the level of personality disorders.

Among usually considered psychosomatic disorders, often complicated by somatic disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia, alcoholism, etc.), as well as psychiatric disorders, complicating some of the treatments (eg, depression and mental disorders that develop after surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting, affective, anksioznye and asthenic states in patients receiving hemodialysis, etc.).

Within the psychosomatic interpreted psychopathological states, arising from the generative cycle in women

syndrome of "premenstrual tension" and "premenstrual dysphoric disorder"

depressed pregnant and postpartum depression, including the syndrome of "maternal grief"
involutional hysteria, etc.

To psychosomatic disorders rank as well as symptomatic psychosis:

  • delirium
  • amentia
  • hallucinosis, etc.

Despite this diversity of these states, they share a common attribute - a combination of mental and somatic disorders, the scope and the associated features of medical care of patients, which involves close cooperation between psychiatrists and general practitioners, usually carried out either in health care settings such as general or specialized in psychosomatic clinics.

Based on the structure of psychosomatic relations are 4 groups of states:
  • Somatisation psychological (psychosomatic) reaction, formed in neurotic or constitutional disorders (neuralgia, neuropathy).
  • Psychogenic reactions (nozogenii) arising in connection with physical illness (the latter acts as a traumatic event) and belonging to the group of reactive states.
  • The reactions of the type of symptomatic lability - provoked a manifestation of psychogenic or exacerbation of physical illness (psychosomatic illness in the traditional sense).
  • Exogenous reaction type (somatogenically), manifests as a result of exposure to harmful somatic and psychic sphere belonging to the category of symptomatic psychoses, ie, exogenous to the category of mental disorders.

In those cases where it is a manifestation of psychogenic provoked exacerbation of symptoms or medical condition, talk about psychosomatic diseases in the traditional sense of the word - of ischemic heart disease, essential hypertension, asthma, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers, some endocrine disorders (hyperthyroidism, diabetes), neurodermatitis, and several others (including allergic) diseases.

An obligatory condition for inclusion of psychosomatic disease states is the presence of emotionally traumatic events that were not only related in time to onset or exacerbation of physical illness, but also plays an important pathogenic role in the occurrence of psychosomatic disorders. Among these adverse external influences not only the acute stressors (death of a close relative, divorce, etc.), but also some of the protracted conflicts, traumatic events, with great length of time.

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