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Neurology, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Oncology, Obesity, Endocrinology, Vascular surgery - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, description of the disease.

Wednesday, 17.07.2024, 16:03
Main » Neurosurgery » Primary brain tumors 
Primary brain tumors

Primary brain tumors

Primary tumors are those that originally appeared in the brain, in contrast to the secondary, which are brain metastases of other tumors. Classification of primary tumors is based on the type of tissue, which is based on the tumor itself. The most common type of primary brain tumors is the glioma.

Among gliomas distinguish its various subtypes:

Astrocytoma. This tumor arises from star-shaped cells called astrocytes. They are available throughout the CNS. In adult patients with astrocytomas most often arise in the cerebellum. In children, this tumor can occur in the cerebellum and the brain stem, as well as in the brain. Astrocytomas are usually manifestations of the growing neurological symptoms, and, in addition, their seizures and headache due to high intracranial pressure.

Glioma of the brain stem. This type of glioma is characterized by its unfavorable properties in terms of its treatment, as it is characterized by the inability to remove. This is due to the fact that the brain stem controls many vital body functions such as breathing and heartbeat, so that intervention in this area is fraught with fatal consequences.

Oligodendrogliomas. It is also a tumor of the glial tissue, which is most often benign and is characterized by slow growth. Radical removal of oligodendrogliomas often impossible. The clinical picture of this type of glioma is characterized by headaches, seizures, and the growth of focal symptoms.

Ependymoma. This tumor is usually benign. It comes from the so-called ependyma. This is a tissue that lines the inside surface of the ventricles. Among the manifestations of ependymomas - increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus, which is associated with impaired circulation of CSF (cerebral fluid) in the ventricles of the brain. However, the prognosis for the treatment of ependymomas is quite favorable, since this tumor is highly sensitive to radiation therapy.

In addition to gliomas (tumors of glial tissue) in the brain can form and the other from a glial tumor tissue.

Other types of tumors that do not arise from glial tissue:

Medulloblastoma. This tumor is characterized by a particular malignancy. It occurs most often in children. Medulloblastoma mainly occurs in the posterior fossa, in the location of the cerebellum. It often grows in the brain stem. Metastasis of this tumor is possible by means of cerebrospinal fluid.

Pituitary adenoma. BPH is called benign tumor of glandular tissue, and as you know, the pituitary gland - is the main iron in the body, the hormones that regulate the activity of other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland secretes hormones following: a growth hormone (somatotropin, GH), lactotropic hormone (prolactin secretion controls the formation of breasts), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the activity of the thyroid and other hormones. Pituitary adenoma is a so-called hormonally active tumors. This means that the tumor in the body produces much larger amounts of hormones that are needed.

The manifestations of pituitary adenoma depends on what kind of hormone (or hormones) produces swelling. With an increased synthesis of growth hormone indicate an increase in certain parts of the body such as hands, feet, or parts of the face (eg, acromegaly). For overproduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) appears Cushing's syndrome, which is a consequence of the large number of steroid hormones, when enhanced synthesis of thyroid hormone the thyroid gland starts to produce excessive amounts of hormones, which is manifested in excessive sweating, irritability, palpitations and high blood pressure. Pituitary adenomas are mostly favorable.

Schwannoma. This is a tumor that originates from the so-called Schwann cells. It is benign. Schwann cells are part of the shells of the cranial and spinal nerves. The most frequently encountered schwannomas of the acoustic nerve tumors. Auditory nerve schwannoma shows the appearance of the constant noise in the ear, deafness, and cerebellar signs of damage (loss of coordination, gait, eye movements). Prognosis schwannoma is usually favorable. Surgical treatment, and is in its excision.

Meningioma. This is based on the tumor cells of the dura mater (Latin meninx - the dura). For a typical slow development of meningiomas. It manifests itself in symptoms of compression and displacement of brain structures. Meningioma - this benign tumor.

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