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Monday, 10.08.2020, 19:35
Main » Pulmonology » Prevention of chronic bronchitis 
20:10
Prevention of chronic bronchitis


Prevention of chronic bronchitis

Smoking Cessation


The patient must clearly understand harmful effects of tobacco smoke on his respiratory system. Prepared a specific program restrictions and smoking cessation. However, in Russian conditions the number of patients to stop smoking, is small. In cases of nicotine dependence is advisable to use NRT products. It is known that smoking causes dependence on nicotine, primarily, while causing the greatest harm to oxidants, heavy metals and carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke and tar. Replacing the need for nicotine by using drugs greatly facilitates smoking cessation and 2-fold increase share of successful failures. In Russia, this class of drugs is the drug Nicorette.

Nicorette - chewing gum. Available in two forms containing doses of 2 and 4 mg of nicotine. Nicorette 2 mg is recommended for patients who smoked less than 25 cigarettes, 4 mg - for patients who smoked more than 25 cigarettes a day. Typically, chewing gum is used for 3 months (up to 24 plates per day). In the first days after quitting use of at least one plate per hour. It is important to observe the proper technique of chewing: a plate put in his mouth and slowly chewed a few times until you feel a particular taste (bitter or mint, depending on the type of chewing gum). Then the plate is placed on the cheek and chewed intermittently it for 30 minutes, until the flavor is gone.

Nicorette - inhaler. The inhaler is a mouthpiece that is inserted in the removable cartridge containing 10 mg of nicotine and menthol. The process of using an inhaler is very similar to the process of smoking: nicotine comes from the cartridge into the oral cavity by inhalation of the mouthpiece. This allows you to alleviate some of the process of withdrawal from the strong, as a rule, the habits of smokers to smoke the procedure itself. All the nicotine from the cartridge is spent within 20 minutes of intense "smoking." The patient himself must determine how many puffs it should be done every time "smoking", but not to use the cartridge open the next day. To use the inhaler more than 6 months is not recommended.

Vaccination


Immunization is a method of creating an active immunity in humans by introducing into his body a suitable vaccine, ie, the drug derived from live attenuated or killed cultures of strains of microorganisms, their toxins or antigens.

In recent years, in order to stimulate local and general immunity in patients who often suffer from respiratory diseases, use a variety of vaccines.

There are three types of immunostimulants of microbial origin:
  • purified bacterial lysates;
  • fraction of cell walls of bacteria;
  • combination of bacterial ribosomes and cell membrane fractions.

The main drawback of lysates of bacteria - a weak and unstable activity.


The fractions of cell walls have a pronounced immunostimulating effect, but do not have the properties of the vaccine, because it does not cause the formation of specific antibodies.

Preparations containing fraction membranes and ribosomes, have a pronounced immunostimulant effect and can cause the formation of antibodies.

There are mono-and multicomponent vaccine.

Monocomponent vaccine

Pneumococcal polyvalent vaccine

Multicomponent vaccine - made up of fractions of ribosomes and membranes of various bacteria that are most often the respiratory pathogens:

Bronhomunal, Ribomunil. The indications for use are recurrent acute and chronic infections of the respiratory tract, including bronchial asthma.

Oxygen therapy


Appointment of oxygen is one of the priorities of COB exacerbation therapy, as expressed by hypoxia has potentially lethal effects. Preference is given to long-term malopotochnoy (2-5 liters per minute) of oxygen therapy in inpatient and at home.

In severe respiratory failure used helium-oxygen mixture.

For home oxygen therapy oxygen concentrators are used, as well as devices for noninvasive ventilation with negative and positive pressure on inspiration and expiration.



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