Ophthalmology (from the Greek «ophtalmos» - «eyes» and «logos» - «science"), a branch of medicine, a subject which - as the organ of vision in its normal and the pathological condition, in the narrower sense - the teaching of eye disease.
Ophthalmic studies of disease of the eyeball and its adnexa (eyelids, lacrimal organs and mucous membranes - the conjunctiva) tissue surrounding the eyes, and bony structures forming the eye socket.
The most common problems in ophthalmology are those anomalies of the optical apparatus of the eye, as - nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, keratoconus, anisometropia, deterioration of the transparency of photoconductive structures of the eyeball (cornea cataract, cataract, vitreous destruction), trophic age and inherited retinal disease (atherosclerotic age macular degeneration, pigmentary retinal degeneration). The functions of the body may suffer as a result of carry-over of neurological diseases (descending optic atrophy), diabetes (diabetic retinopathy, recurrent hemophthalmus), hypertension, atherosclerosis, renal disease and pathology of pregnancy, blood diseases. A daunting challenge of modern ophthalmology are various disorders of intraocular pressure - glaucoma.
Modern diagnostic methods in ophthalmology can detect eye problems at an early stage and carry out their effective prevention and treatment. Great success achieved laser ophthalmology. Today, nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism effectively treated by the method of laser vision correction PRK (PRK) and Lesyk (LASIK, LASIK). Laser therapy is widely used in ophthalmology for retinal pathology.