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Monday, 25.09.2023, 16:02
Main » Neurology » Intracranial hypertension 
Intracranial hypertension

Intracranial hypertension

Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and hydrocephalus - two manifestations, often related to each other. Hydrocephalus - a violation of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid - usually accompanied by increased intracranial pressure. The reason it may be a congenital abnormality of the brain and its vessels, as well as the development of tumors, trauma and displacement of the brain, resulting in cerebrospinal fluid can not normally flowing to the head of the spinal canal in the spinal cord. In children, hydrocephalus, congenital and often accompanied by an increase in the size of the skull, and intracranial pressure are signs of increasing tension and bulging fontanelles. If the skull is formed, ie springs bushes and tissues are no longer able to stretch (in children older than 1.5-2 years old and adults), the clinic became prevalent signs of increased intracranial pressure, without changing the configuration of the skull.

With an increase in intracranial pressure increases the pressure difference between the different spaces of the skull, as well as between the skull and the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord. This leads to a shift of the whole brain space with a lot of pressure in the zone of lower pressure. As a result of this dislocation can occur compression of brain structures, their break-holes in the bone of the skull and the dura that covers the brain from the top.

This leads to the denial of the substance of the brain, their compression of adjacent structures, blood vessels, with a second violation of the developing flow of individual zones of the brain. Clinical symptoms that develop with an increase in intracranial pressure is largely dependent on the affected area of the brain, a detailed analysis of the clinic suggests a localization of the pathology, as well as a possible cause of it - whether it be a tumor, a vascular crisis or the general intoxication of the organism in chronic diseases. 

The most common manifestation of increased intracranial pressure - is a headache. It may be constant, or localized in a certain area. Often it is accompanied by dizziness, nausea and vomiting, drowsiness and lethargy can be. Can develop a forced position of the head - with a slope forward or sideways - with tension and soreness of the neck muscles and shoulders. Headache and muscle tension may be more pronounced in the morning, which is associated with an additional increase in intracranial pressure during sleep. This is due to expansion of blood vessels due to the accumulation of carbon dioxide per night, which in turn causes stretching of the walls of blood vessels and dura mater. Nausea and vomiting are also worse in the morning. After vomiting, a headache sometimes weakens or stops. If the increase in intracranial pressure there for a long time, then develops double vision, with the possible fallout of the visual areas, as well as blindness, while ocular changes may be irreversible.

It should be noted that the common causes of increasing intracranial pressure may be a medication - such as thyroxine in thyroid diseases, as well as oral contraceptives and other hormonal methods. In the treatment of hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure is necessary to accurately represent the cause of their occurrence. May depend on the use of surgical procedures - eg, drainage of the ventricles of the brain, craniotomy, artificial anastomosis with normal CSF outflow pathways. Particularly successful surgical treatment can be used in children with congenital disorders of the brain. Drugs, the most commonly used in the treatment of increasing intracranial pressure are diuretics, tranquilizers and cardiovascular funds.

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