The clavicle is a tubular bone. The central end of the clavicle is connected to the sternum and a lateral outgrowth from the scapula acromion. Fractures of the clavicle occur frequently and account for about 15% of all fractures. Very often, clavicle fractures occur in children and adolescents.
The mechanism of fracture of the clavicle is the most direct impact of traumatizing force - a blow to the collarbone. Damage to the clavicle may occur from a fall on the shoulder, arm straight, elbow. Under the influence of traction of the muscles (mainly sternoclavicular-mastoid or sternocleidomastoid muscle), central otlomok clavicle is displaced upwards and backwards, and the peripheral, due to the severity of limb is displaced downward and medially. The patient complains of pain in the fracture, pain during movement of his hand, limitation of movement in the shoulder joint. In the area of the fracture occurs swelling, bleeding.
On examination, reveal a shortening of the upper arm broken collarbone. Most clavicle displacement of bone fragments seen on the eyes. In children, the clavicle may break without breaking the periosteum. In this case, the recognition of fracture is difficult, however, pain, bruising, and impaired function of limbs to help establish the correct diagnosis. Fragments of the clavicle may damage the pleura, the nearby blood vessels, break the skin. However, it is extremely rare, usually broken collarbone are uncomplicated.
Diagnosis of fractures of the clavicle by means of X-rays, which determine the location of fracture clavicle and the direction of displacement of bone fragments. As a first-aid to the patient's arm to hang scarf or bandage desault.
Treatment of fracture of the clavicle.
The first step is carried out anesthesia, by introducing into the fracture site novocaine. Special techniques set clavicle fragments in his place in the armpit is placed cotton-gauze roll. Then, the shoulder must be immobilized, as fragments of the clavicle is very easy to move again. To do this, use a variety of dressings and devices.
In Russia, the most commonly used dressing desault, rings Delbe vosmiobraznaya or bandage. Fused clavicle for 1-1.5 months. Very rarely have to resort to surgical treatment of clavicular fracture, if the damage or compress the fragments of vessels and nerves of the clavicle or dislocation persists. In this case, apply the fixation of bone fragments by means of metal pins, screws or special long plate.