Diabetes insipidus (insipidus exhaustion) - a chronic disease, the occurrence of which is associated with insufficient activity of antidiuretic hormone, or lack of response of renal tubules to antidiuretic hormone.
There are three forms of diabetes insipidus:
The organic form is characterized by insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone, which occurs when damage to nuclei of the hypothalamus or hypothalamic-pituitary tract and can be caused by acute infectious, chronic (tuberculosis, syphilis) disease, cranial trauma, brain tumors.
Idiopathic form of say in those cases where there are no signs of a lesion of the hypothalamus and can not determine the cause of the disease.
Renal form of diabetes insipidus depends on innate physiological or anatomical anomalies of kidneys in violation of their ability to positively respond to antidiuretic hormone.
Symptoms (thirst, frequent urination and excessive) often appear suddenly. Daily quantity of urine is 6-12 liters or more, the urine is often allocated and large portions.
An early sign of diabetes insipidus may be bed-wetting. Characterized by dry skin, weight loss, irritability, constipation, loss of appetite. When uncompensated polyuria observed dramatic dehydration, headache, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, delirium, blurred vision, temperature lability, tachycardia, cessation of sweating. Children do not tolerate salt stress at which a fever, dizziness, muscle aches. The disease may be associated with delayed growth and sexual development.
For the organic form of diabetes insipidus is characterized by symptoms of central nervous system (reduced visual acuity, eye muscle paralysis, swelling of the nipples of the optic nerves, etc.) and their combination of endocrine disorders (obesity, cachexia, dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly).
Renal diabetes insipidus often manifests itself in the first months of life abundant diuresis, thirst, and may be characterized by mental retardation.
The main treatment for organic forms of the disease and idiopatichekoy is replacement therapy with posterior pituitary. When the tumor pituitary region performed radiotherapy and surgery. When kidney shape sometimes observed favorable therapeutic effect on the application of diuretics (paradoxical effect of these drugs).