Bypass surgery - an operation aimed at reducing the symptoms of coronary heart disease. The method of grafting (born shunt - bypass) is that with a healthy section of the vein created a workaround for blood flow. This method of treating a disease of vessels used not only in cardiac surgery, and vascular surgery in other areas.
Coronary bypass surgery - CABG - allows you to restore blood flow in the arteries of the heart by traversing space narrowing of coronary vessels with shunts.
Technology is a pioneer in bridging Rene Favaloro Argentinian, who first applied this method in the late 1960s.
By the indications for coronary artery bypass surgery enjoy:
The defeat of the left coronary artery, the main vessel, ensuring the delivery of blood to the left side of the heart
Defeat all the coronary vessels
Before performing coronary bypass surgery, as well as to all cardiac surgery, carried out a full range of patient examination, including special methods of investigation, as electrocardiography, coronary angiography and ultrasound of the heart.
As for the bypass surgery usually takes one of the veins of the lower extremity, which, once we note does not affect the outflow of venous blood in the lower extremity. In addition, for this purpose can be used radiation or internal thoracic artery.
The operation is performed only under general anesthesia. Preparation for surgery includes the same activities as for other cardiac surgery.
The main stages of coronary bypass surgery:
The patient is transported to the operating room and placed on the operating table
The anesthesiologist administered intravenously patient anesthetic, after which the patient falls asleep
In the trachea of the patient introduce a special endotracheal tube through which the patient throughout the operation by means of breathing ventilator
The midline of the chest is a vertical section.
As part of the vein graft is prepared or arteries of those places.
The surgeon stops the heart patient. Since then, the circulation in a patient's body by using heart-lung machine. It should be noted that in some cases, surgery is performed on the beating heart.
Shunt sewn at one end to the aorta and the coronary artery to another location after the constriction.
Restored heart function.
Sutured the incision of the chest
In some cases, surgery may be performed coronary artery bypass surgery, as already stated above, the beating heart without the use of artificial circulatory system. The advantages of this method are:
the absence of traumatic lesions of blood cells
shorter duration of surgery
rapid postoperative rehabilitation
lack of complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass
Lasts for coronary bypass surgery in about 3 - 4 hours. After surgery, the patient is transferred to the intensive care unit, where until recovery of consciousness - an average of one day. After that, he was transferred to regular ward cardiac surgery department.
Possible complications of coronary artery bypass surgery:
Infection in the incision area
Deep vein thrombosis
Nonunion, or incomplete fusion of the sternum
Complications of anesthesia, such as malignant hyperthermia
Myocardial infarction due to low blood pressure, early closure of the lumen of the shunt or its damage
Acute renal failure due to low blood pressure
The narrowing of the shunt, particularly in the vein graft on the basis of
The formation of keloid scars
Chronic pain in the incision area
Postoperative complications in the form of constipation, memory loss, etc.
Coronary angioplasty performed by experienced hands frequently to avoid large cardiac surgery such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).