The word comes from the Latin transplantation «transplantare» - transplant. By the early 20th century, the prerequisites for organ transplantation. There have been well studied anatomy, physiology, and proved the possibility of survival outside the body, solved the problem of cross-linking vascular problems of asepsis, antisepsis and anesthesia.
The following types of transplants: allotransplantation - the transplantation of organs and tissues from one person to another according to the principle of compatibility. Autotransplantation involves transplantation within a single organism. Xenotransplantation - Transplantation of organs, tissues and cells of animals to humans.
The main sources of donor organs could be: the dead, who pronounced the death of brain donors with the stated biological death, the living entity, consisting of a genetic relationship to the recipient.
Donated organs are removed from the body of the deceased the whole complex. The essence of multiorgan donation is that it should be withdrawn maximum number of different organs suitable for transplantation, multiple recipients. Initially, the heart and lungs are removed, then the liver and pancreas, and kidneys.
Bodies, which can be obtained from a living donor without bringing harm to health, are kidney, liver fragments, distal fragment of the pancreas, a fragment of the pancreas, lung lobe. The undeniable advantage of transplantation from a living donor is the possibility of scheduling the operation, depending on the condition of the recipient, the higher the quality of the graft.
Indications for transplantation are specific to a particular organ. But the counter-have a certain commonality. They are absolute and relative.
By absolute contraindications include: not giving medication dysfunction of vital organs, the presence of infectious processes, tuberculosis, AIDS, cancer is organ transplantation to be.
Relative contraindications are considered, which are known to complicate the maintenance operation.
In order to avoid rejection of donor organ in the future held a lifelong immunosuppressive therapy. The choice of immunosuppressive treatment scheme depends on the quality of donor organ matching for blood group and tissue compatibility. Parallel to the prevention of complications should be provoked by this therapy.
After transplantation of human body is waiting for a long period of rehabilitation will have to give up bad habits and respect the work and rest.