Colon cancer is approximately 15% of all malignant human cancer. The average age of the patients - 60 years. Colon cancer is a malignancy of the intestinal epithelium. The most common cancer of the lower parts of the colon (descending colon, sigmoid and rectum).
Factors contributing to the development of colon cancer can be divided into internal and external:
The internal factors of colon cancer include those that are associated with heredity, as well as with existing medical conditions. For example, an increased risk of colon cancer are those with familial adenomatous polyposis bowel syndrome Turco, Gardner's syndrome, Oldfield syndrome and others. Almost all persons without treatment over time the cancer is diagnosed. Examples of diseases that increase the risk of colon cancer, Crohn's disease is and ulcerative colitis. Any chronic inflammatory bowel disease increase the risk of cancer, sometimes dozens of times.
External causes of colon cancer - is a particular diet, work and lifestyle. Comparative anatomy of man shows that his diet should consist of 80% of plant food. Therefore, cancer, colorectal cancer is much less common among vegetarians and much more - among meat lovers. A large amount of fat and meat-eating leads to the processes of anaerobic degradation of protein (rot), products which damage the epithelium and increase the likelihood of cancer. Chronic intake of carcinogens (eg asbestos, benzpyrene and other substances) also contribute to the development of colon cancer.
To use the standard international classification of TNM-classification, where the T (tumor) - assessment of the actual tumor, N (nodus) - evaluation of lymph node involvement, M (metastasis) - assessment of tumor metastasis.
Colon cancer can be a long time does not manifest itself. Typically, the patient begins to worry when there are bleeding because other nonspecific symptoms (weight loss, anemia, abdominal pain, stool changes, especially a tendency to constipation) are often masked by the already existing bowel disease.
Colon cancer usually metastasizes to the liver and the nearest lymph nodes. Cancer of the rectum, having features of the blood supply (bypassing the portal vein) metastasizes to the lungs.
Diagnosis of colon cancer after 40 years to become a regular procedure, at least one time in 3 years. As the tests use a variety of laboratory and clinical methods:
Fecal occult blood
X-ray examinations of the intestine (x-ray with contrast intestinal x-ray computed tomography)
Ultrasound examination of the intestine, magnetic resonance imaging.
Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy.
Biopsy of tumor formation.
Treatment of colon cancer primarily surgical. Surgical operations are trying to do organ. For example, in cancer of the colon performed gemikolonektomiyu (removal of half of the plot), and rectal cancer tend to operate with the possibility of restoring patency of stool through the natural sphincter.
Sometimes good results are obtained by surgical treatment of single metastases to the liver. In this 5-year survival rate stands at 20%.
As an additional treatment using chemotherapy and radiation therapy of tumors. They can increase the survival time and reduce the likelihood of relapse. Chemotherapy without surgical treatment in the presence of metastases is designed to increase the duration and quality of life, but by the almost complete recovery does not. Response to treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs is observed in approximately one in three patients.
In the case of a successful surgery with colostomy formation in future planning is usually cosmetic surgery to restore patency of the intestine, it is necessary not only a cosmetic purpose, but also to improve the quality of life.