Chronic gastritis - a long, flowing chronic inflammatory and dystrophic disease of the gastric mucosa. The disease is always there for a long time. Gradually, the inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa leads to its degeneration. The normal structure of the mucous membrane is gradually rebuilt. The same occurs gradually atrophy of the mucous membrane of the cells, glands, submucosa with replacement of the glandular tissue at the junction and loss of function of the glands. Violations of the secretion and gastric motility in the beginning of the disease expressed by the minimum, in the course of the disease progressing.
Chronic gastritis is very common. It is believed that 50 to 85% of the adult population in varying degrees, suffer from chronic gastritis. The incidence of chronic gastritis also increases significantly with increasing age of the patients.
Currently, the main cause of chronic gastritis is H. pylori infection. A microorganism called Helicobakter pylori was first isolated from the gastric mucosa by Marshall B. and D. Warren. This organism has a curved S-shaped, covered with a smooth shell. At one end of the bacteria is from two to six flagella, by which Helicobacter pylori can be moved and attached to the cage.
At present, nine species are established this organism. In order to be able to overcome the barrier of gastric Helicobacter pylori produces several types of enzymes that break down the gastric mucus cells of the stomach wall, and a protein that inhibits the synthesis of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Microorganism overcomes the barrier of the mucous membrane, attached to the cell membrane, multiplies, damages cells and causes the development of chronic gastritis. First, Helicobacter colonizes the antral stomach, at the junction of the stomach into the duodenal intestine, then spreads to the entire inner surface of the stomach.
Role Helicobakter pylori is today considered proven in the development of chronic gastritis 80% and almost 100% of gastric ulcers.
H. pylori infection is widespread among the population of the planet. It is believed that the older the person, the more likely that he was infected with this organism. For 60 years, every second person has in his stomach Helicobakter pylori.
The source of infection is always the man himself: his saliva, dental plaque, feces. Transmitted infection is oral-oral or fecal-oral route when using some utensils, a toothbrush, with kisses, with dirty hands. Sometimes infections occur in poor sterilization of medical instruments during the sounding of the stomach or fibrogastroskopii.
Other factors involved in the development of chronic gastritis is now considered to be contributing to or facilitating the development of chronic gastritis in the presence of H. pylori infection. They are divided into external and internal.
The external factors of chronic gastritis include:
Food or nutritional. Facilitate the development of chronic gastritis prolonged dysrhythmia food, irregular meals with low, hurried prozhevyvaniem food, eating tainted food. Adversely affected by the habit of a very sharp or acidic foods. Irritants stimulate the production of gastric juice and mucus, and prolonged exposure to gastric secretion is depleted. Too hot or too cold food for a long time also contributes to the development of chronic gastritis.
Disorders of the masticatory apparatus. By chewing food causes inadequate availability of patients teeth, missing teeth or the presence of arthritis of the temporomandibular joint.
Drinking alcohol stimulates the secretion of gastric juice and spirits irritate the stomach wall. There is at first superficial gastritis, which gradually becomes chronic.
Smoking for many years is the development of the so-called gastritis smokers. Toxic components of tobacco smoke at first stimulate, then inhibit gastric secretion and damage the protective mucus barrier of the stomach. In addition, smoking leads to a spasm of small vessels, impairing blood flow to the stomach.
Use of certain medications can contribute to the development or exacerbation of chronic gastritis. Destroy the mucosal barrier and damage the gastric mucosa non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone), salicylates (acetylsalicylic acid or aspirin), potassium chloride, reserpine, certain medicines used to treat tuberculosis.
Occupational hazard. Frequently contributes to the development of chronic gastritis work in dusty rooms (dust, cotton, coal, metals). The dust particles in the air, fall on the mucous membrane of the mouth and swallowed. Once in the stomach, they cause irritation. This may occur in the presence of vapors of alkali, acids and other toxic substances.
The internal factors of chronic gastritis include:
Chronic inflammation of the oral cavity (dental caries, periodontitis), nasopharynx (chronic pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis), lung (chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis).
Endocrine diseases (diabetes, adrenal disease).
Diseases accompanied by metabolic disorders (gout).
Diseases accompanied by chronic oxygen starvation of tissues of the body - cardiovascular disease, pulmonary insufficiency.
Chronic renal failure contributes to chronic gastritis in the body due to accumulation of products of nitrogen metabolism in toxic concentrations. Renal function in the removal of metabolic products, and reduced urea and other nitrogenous waste products are derived through the gastric mucosa, causing irritation and damage to it.
Chronic diseases of other organs of the gastrointestinal tract (chronic cholecystitis, pancreatitis, hepatitis, eterity, colitis). All of these diseases in some degree disturb the secretion and motility of the stomach and intestines and are accompanied by reflux (reflux) of the contents of the duodenum into the stomach. Autoimmune processes. In this case, the body due to dysfunction of the immune system produced autoantibodies that damage the parietal (parietal) cells of the mucous membrane, producing hydrochloric acid, or a factor gastromukoprotein Castle, which is the main component of protective stomach mucus. It is believed that up to 20% of chronic gastritis appears on the mechanism of development.
There are chronic gastritis
Type A - caused by a violation of immune processes in the body
B - in the development of which the main role belongs to Helicobakter pylori.