Parkinson's disease occurs when certain nerve cells in a brain region known as the substantia nigra die or not to perform its function. Normally, these cells produce important substances such as dopamine. Dopamine - a chemical that is responsible for the transmission of nerve signals between the substantia nigra and the next transfer station of the brain - a striped body. Lack of dopamine leads to the fact that the cells of the striatum are getting out of control. This leads to the fact that patients can not control their movements. Studies show that patients with Parkinson's disease is the loss of up to 80% of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra. The reason for the death of these cells is unknown so far.
One of the theories of the causes of Parkinson's disease - damage to nerve cells by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable because they lack an electron. By interacting with the molecules of cells (especially iron), they take their electrons. This process is called oxidation. Normally, this process is controlled by antioxidants. Evidence of oxidative mechanism causes of Parkinson's disease may be the fact that patients with this pathology observed elevated levels of iron in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra.
Some researchers have suggested that the cause of Parkinson's disease may be the effect of toxins, both external and internal.
There is a relatively new theory about the role of genetic factors in the development of Parkinson's disease. In 15 - 20% of patients with this disease have close relatives with Parkinson's symptoms (such as tremor). Now scientists have identified several genes responsible for the appearance of parkinsonism at a young age. Incidence of Parkinson's disease
Some Parkinson's disease often occurs in men. Mean age - 60 years.