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Neurology, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Oncology, Obesity, Endocrinology, Vascular surgery - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, description of the disease.

Thursday, 18.04.2024, 01:45
Main » Ophthalmology » Tumors of the optic chiasm 
Tumors of the optic chiasm

Tumors of the optic chiasm

Chiasm glioma

Chiasm glioma occurs most often. With the growth of tumors, it can spread to the skull base, in the visual pathways in the hypothalamus.

Chiasm glioma manifestations can be diverse. If it extends in the direction of the visual pathways, lead to abnormalities in visual function. If compressed the hypothalamus, there are signs of the endocrine system. Diagnosis is established by using a computer and magnetic resonance imaging.

Treatment of glioma surgical chiasm.

Pituitary adenomas

Pituitary adenoma is a benign tumor of glandular tissue, which is located in the anterior pituitary. The causes of pituitary adenomas so far not completely understood. Contributing factors are considered infectious processes in the nervous system, cranial trauma and brain, various adverse effects on the fetus during pregnancy.

Recently, given the value and duration of oral contraceptive drugs. Pituitary adenomas are hormonally inactive (insidentaloma) if the cells from which they are, do not produce hormones and hormonally active. The size of pituitary adenomas are classified as microadenomas (from 1 mm to 2 cm in diameter), and makroadenomy - more than 2 cm in diameter.

Manifestations of pituitary adenomas depend on whether the hormone producing cells in the adenomas, the size of the adenoma and its rate of growth. There are eye symptoms (narrowing of the visual field, often with the temporal side, or center, atrophy of the optic nerves), endocrine symptoms (depending on the violation gormonprodutsiruyuschey pituitary function depending on the production of hormones which is broken, there are certain manifestations). When X-ray changes are bony structures of skull.

Treatment of pituitary adenomas operative, radiation.


Kraniofaringeoma develops in childhood and adolescence from the remnants of fetal tissue. If the tumor can decussation of the optic nerves and squeezed, symptoms of the view (stagnant nipples optic nerves, contraction of visual fields).

By crossing the defeat of the visual pathways can result in other brain tumors, which are located in nearby underlying tissues. Their growth leads to compression of chiasm and ocular symptoms occur. Accurate diagnosis of neoplastic processes of the brain with a lesion of the visual pathways is carried out at magnetic resonance and computed tomography.

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