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Neurology, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Oncology, Obesity, Endocrinology, Vascular surgery - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, description of the disease.

Monday, 25.09.2023, 17:05
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Tic douloureux

Tic douloureux

Trigeminal neuralgia is described as one of the most excruciating pain known to mankind. Usually, the pain covers the lower face and jaw, but sometimes it can also hit the area around the nose and eyes. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia is strong, like an electric shock. The reason it will happen stimulation of trigeminal nerve, which gives branches to the forehead, cheeks and lower jaw. Usually the pain occurs in a particular part of the face.

Although trigeminal neuralgia is not always curable, at the moment, there are methods to significantly relieve pain in this disease. The first drugs that are commonly used for trigeminal neuralgia are anticonvulsants. The ineffectiveness of medical treatment, as well as serious side effects, surgical treatments are applied.

Trigeminal nerve

Trigeminal nerve - the fifth of twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Nerve function - providing sensitivity in the face. One is the trigeminal nerve on the left side of the face, and another - on the right. In the trigeminal nerve has three branches:

  • The first branch provides the sensitivity of the eye, upper eyelid and forehead.
  • The second branch provides the sensitivity of the lower eyelid, cheek, nostril, upper lip and upper gum.
  • The third branch provides the sensitivity of the lower jaw, lower lip, gums, and some of the masticatory muscles.
  • The incidence of trigeminal neuralgia

One of the major risk factors for the disease is advanced age. It usually affects women and is rare in people younger than 50 years. In addition to age, risk factors can be high blood pressure and multiple sclerosis.
Causes of trigeminal neuralgia

The pain of trigeminal neuralgia associated with stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. The cause of pain is usually touching the arteries and veins with trigeminal nerve at the base of the skull. At this point, is compression of the nerve that is causing the pain.

Other causes of trigeminal nerve compression include the tumor, multiple sclerosis, which leads to the destruction of the so-called myelin sheath of nerve. Typically, the development of trigeminal neuralgia in young linked to multiple sclerosis.
The symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia

Most patients say that their pain begins spontaneously, without any reason. In other patients the pain begins after a car accident, a blow on the face or after dental treatment with a dentist. Although doctors, and dentists, believe that the intervention on the teeth can not be the cause of neuralgia, most likely, these patients have already developed pathology, and the intervention of a dentist was the impetus for the emergence of pain.

The pain often starts in the upper or lower jaw, and many patients find that the pain associated with dental problems. However, treatment of the tooth does not provide pain relief.

Pain of trigeminal neuralgia may be typical and atypical. In a typical pains, characteristic of the trigeminal nerve, in the course of the disease, there are certain periods of remission. The pain is shooting in nature, like an electric shock, and is usually triggered by touching certain parts of the face. Atypical pain is usually constant, it captures a broader part of the face. With this course of the disease may not be a period of remission of pain.

Treatment of this neuralgia is more difficult.

Trigeminal neuralgia - cyclical disease. Periods of acute pain subsided to alternate periods. Usually, the pain lasts a certain time with a short interval between them. Some patients with pain are rare, once a day. Others have pain attacks occur every hour. The pain usually begins in the form of electric shock, reaching its peak for 20 seconds and then takes some time.

The factors that trigger the beginning of an attack of trigeminal neuralgia:

  • A light touch to the skin of the face
  • Washing
  • Shave
  • Brushing your teeth
  • Conk
  • Light breeze
  • Makeup
  • Smile
  • Conversation

Since symptoms are similar to trigeminal neuralgia and other diseases. These include the temporal tendonitis, Ernest syndrome and occipital nerve neuralgia. When temporal tendinitis pain grabs his cheek and teeth, there is headache and pain in the neck. Ernest Syndrome occurs when damage to the so-called stilomandibulyarnoy svzyaki that connects the base of the skull with lower jaw. It was also observed headache, pain in the neck and face. When the occipital neuralgia, nerve pain, usually located at the front and back of the head and can sometimes spread to the face.
Diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia

Usually the diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia is made by the patient's complaints and his examination. In the diagnosis of the causes of neuralgia is set to magnetic resonance imaging. It allows you to identify the signs of a tumor or multiple sclerosis. However, other factors that may cause trigeminal neuralgia, is rarely detected by magnetic resonance imaging.

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