Stenosis of the trachea and major bronchi - a pathological condition caused by narrowing of the trachea and bronchi of congenital or acquired nature.
Classification of stenosis of the trachea and major bronchi
There are congenital and acquired, true and compression, organic and functional stenosis of the trachea major bronchi.
Organic stenosis, in turn, is divided into primary, associated with morphological changes in the bronchial wall itself, or trachea, and the secondary (compression) at which the lumen of the airway is compressed externally.
Primary acquired stenosis of the trachea often develop after prolonged intubation with mechanical ventilation, following mechanical injury, operations on the trachea, as well as thermal and chemical burns due to prolonged stay in the bronchial foreign bodies. In some cases, tracheal stenosis caused by tuberculous bronhoadenitom, bronchial and mediastinal tumors.
Stenosis of the trachea appears stridor with symptoms of respiratory failure is more pronounced in young children, especially when joining the inflammatory process.
Patients with stenosis of a major bronchus usually complain of a cough, sometimes paroxysmal, painful, offers no relief, and gives rise to an erroneous diagnosis of asthma. With the development and exacerbation of the inflammatory process distal to the stenosis marked deterioration of general condition, fever, increase in sputum.
The cause of primary congenital tracheal stenosis is an abnormal development of the wall of the trachea or major bronchi, and the second is a double aortic arch that covers the trachea in the form of a ring and compressed breast of her department, as well as embryonic tumors and cysts of the mediastinum.
Congenital stenosis of major bronchi is usually manifested by coughing, and outbreaks of pneumonia distal to the narrowing and well diagnosed by bronchoscopic.
The formation of primary congenital stenosis is mainly due to the underdevelopment of the membranous trachea and bronchi, resulting in a cartilaginous rings are fully or partially closed, and clearance - narrowed.
Clinically, congenital tracheal stenosis manifested dyspnea, cyanosis, sometimes as a result of the accession of edema of the mucosa and recurrence of infection in a bronchopulmonary tissue.
Patients with severe congenital stenosis, usually die within the first year of life from asphyxiation or join infection (pneumonia), but there are some cases of successful radical surgical treatment of primary congenital stenosis of the trachea.
Both primary and secondary congenital stenosis is very rare. The pathogenesis of stenosis of the trachea and major bronchi
The narrowing of the trachea violating air circulation, making it difficult to inhale and exhale, which may lead to the gradual development of chronic hypoxia and pulmonary emphysema. Stenosis of the bronchus, depending on the degree of its severity and anatomical features may be associated with the development of partial or complete atelectasis of the respective lung, while in the presence of the valve mechanism with difficult exhalation - the development of emphysema, lung sections of the