A simple non-toxic goiter is a disease characterized by diffuse or nodular thyroid enlargement in people who do not live in endemic goiter in areas.
A simple non-toxic goiter or a sporadic occur more frequently in women and those working with zobogenny substances. This mercury, benzene, thiocyanates, nitrates.
There is a genetic predisposition to develop this type of goiter. It can be a family and to meet for several generations, particularly in women of childbearing age. Nontoxic goiter frequency increases with age, in violation food, especially the shortage of protein in the diet.
For the formation of thyroid hormones need one of the essential amino acids - tyrosine. And the shortage of food in the synthesis of thyroxine and triiodothyronine is slowed down. When exposed to pesticides, nitrogen oxides, salts of lead, mercury, hydrogen sulfide compounds, cyanide formation of thyroid hormone is suppressed, which may also lead to the development of goiter. Punctuated the action of unfavorable factors in adolescence when the body grows and rebuilds, and needs a lot of thyroid hormones. This is what happens during pregnancy and during menopause. Increase the need for thyroid hormone prolonged stress and chronic illness.
You may experience a simple nontoxic goiter during chronic administration of certain drugs. This drug, containing in the structure of lithium, perchlorate, thiocyanate, and thiourea derivatives of thiouracil. Adverse effects on the thyroid gland and has a large amount of fat in the blood plasma. Under the influence of all these adverse factors violated any of the stages in the formation of thyroid hormones:
gland tissue uptake of iodine
biosynthesis of tyrosine
synthesis of thyroxine and triiodothyronine
the normal ratio of thyroxine and triiodothyronine is shifted towards a more active triiodothyronine
transport of hormones to their place of action.
Deficiency of thyroid hormones in the blood, in turn, causes the release of a large number of pituitary hormone in the brain - thyrotropin, which stimulates the thyroid gland. Under the influence of this hormone thyroid tissue grows, the thyroid gland increases in volume evenly (diffuse goiter), or formed local proliferation of tissue (nodular goiter). Over time, the thyroid gland may have a cyst, hemorrhage into the nodes in the thyroid tissue deposited calcium salts formed calcifications.
Diagnosis of simple nontoxic goiter.
Simple nontoxic goiter can occur for a long time unnoticed by the patient, especially early on. On examination, probing and can be found to increase the size of the thyroid gland or uneven structure - nodules. Palpation of the thyroid gland is painless.
In the future there are unpleasant sensations in the thyroid gland, the feeling of a lump in the throat, difficulty swallowing, feeling of pressure in the neck by tilting and turning your head. Sometimes, when large amounts of thyroid gland in the supine position, may be difficulty in breathing. Thyroid function is usually preserved.
But sometimes there are signs of lung gipotiroza (reduction in thyroid function), which is intensified under adverse conditions (chronic diseases, increased physical and mental stress, pregnancy).
The patient appears to cold, slow. May increase the weight. The skin of patients with dry. Body temperature may be somewhat reduced. Slows the heart rate. Women can disrupt the menstrual cycle. Gipotiroz may be a cause of infertility.
The diagnosis of a simple nontoxic goiter set of patients who do not live in an endemic goiter in the regions. Performed finger study of thyroid gland, which suggests the presence of goiter. Ultrasound prostate specifies its size, shape goiter (diffuse or nodular). To determine thyroid function performed radioisotope study of thyroid gland, measuring levels of thyroid hormones in the blood. Sometimes, if a sufficient amount of blood hormones to study cancer reserves held with rifatiroinom sample, which reveals the hidden gipotiroz.
Treatment of simple nontoxic goiter.
In the treatment of simple nontoxic goiter diet is very important. The diet should be full. In the food should be consumed enough protein. Of food should be excluded strumogennye (contributing to the development of goiter). This radish, radishes, beans, turnips, cauliflower, peanuts.
Drug treatment is a simple nontoxic goiter is conducted with synthetic thyroid hormone (thyroxine, tireotom). Appointed thyroxine fasting. The dose of medication is individually controlled by the patient's condition and the amount of thyroid hormones in the blood. If the patient remains a constant weight, normal pulse and blood pressure, the size of the thyroid gland decreases in blood normal amount of hormones - the dose is considered sufficient.
Surgical treatment is a simple nontoxic goiter out if the thyroid is rapidly increasing in volume, in spite of treatment, if there are signs of compression of the neck and if the thyroid gland exhibit so-called cold junction. Called cold nodules, which in radioisotope study does not accumulate radioactive iodine and the results of his biopsy questionable, it is impossible to exclude malignant degeneration of cells of the thyroid. The prognosis of this disease is favorable. With time begun treatment recovery occurs.
Prevention of simple nontoxic goiter.
In order to prevent this type of goitre goitrogen is necessary to exclude the external environment (nitrate, gasoline, benzene, thiocyanate, pesticides). Caution should be applied drugs, contributing to the development of goiter.