Heart defects - it is the anatomical defects of the heart, its valve apparatus or its blood vessels. They can occur both in isolation and in combination with each other.
All heart defects can be divided into congenital and acquired. Birth defects occur in humans even in utero. Congenital heart defects occur with a frequency of 8.6 cases per thousand births.
There are over 100 different congenital heart defects. Among the major congenital heart defects are the following:
Open arteriosus (Botallo) duct
Defect aortolegochnoy septum
Atrial septal defect
Anomalous drainage of pulmonary veins
Ventricular septal defect
Aneurysms of the sinuses Valsavy
Stenosis of the pulmonary artery
Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of great vessels
The double discharge of the great vessels from right ventricle
Congenital stenosis and mitral insufficiency
Anomalies of the coronary arteries
All of congenital heart defects lead to the disruption of the normal circulation. There are casts of blood from the heart of one department to another, resulting in heart failure develops. Birth defects may be primarily in the form of defect walls separating the atria from the ventricles, valve defects, which regulate the movement of an adequate blood from the atria to the ventricles, as well as abnormalities of blood vessels emanating from the heart, most often in the form of restriction - stenoses.
Acquired heart disease - a pathology that occurs as a result of acute or chronic disease and injury in violation of the function of the valves and causing changes in intracardiac hemodynamics. At the same time observed, mainly in the breach of heart valve. The most common acquired heart diseases to cause rheumatic fever, endocarditis, etc.
Typically, heart disease, both congenital and acquired, are subject to surgical intervention.
Rehabilitation after heart defects
Cardiac rehabilitation often begins when you're still in the hospital for treatment, and then continues after discharge.
The first stages of most cardiac rehabilitation programs last from three to six months. At this time, you run a cardiologist, a training specialist, a dietitian, a specialist in rehabilitative exercises, occupational therapist, physiotherapist and psychologist.
If surgery was performed before the patient developed signs of heart failure, the rehabilitation of the proceeds, of course, is easier, since it is easier to rejuvenate the body and the ability of the heart.
Rehabilitation after surgery for heart disease is aimed at achieving optimal conditions for quality of life. As in the case of coronary artery disease, the most important part is kardioreabilitatsii physiotherapy, physical exercise, which train the heart muscle, blood vessels of the heart. In addition, therapeutic exercise leads to a reduction in blood cholesterol levels, lowering high blood pressure, overweight, and reduces the risk of stress.
Thus, the main step is physical kardioreabilitatsii dosed load. Physical activity helps to reduce weight and increase strength and muscle tone. When physical activity is improving the blood supply of all organs and tissues in the body, normal delivery of oxygen to all body cells.
Furthermore, the very heart of a little trains, and gets used to work at a higher load, but without reaching exhaustion. Thus, the heart of "learning" to work with such a load that would under normal circumstances, at work, home, etc.
In addition, exercise can help ease emotional stress and fight depression and stress. After physiotherapy, as a rule, disappear anxiety and restlessness. And with regular physiotherapy sessions disappear insomnia and irritability.
Depending on the state of the organism, the presence of heart failure and heart condition, except for therapeutic exercises and walking can be applied and other types of physical activity such as jogging, brisk walking, cycling or training on a stationary bike, swimming, dancing, skating or skiing.
But these types of loads, such as tennis, volleyball, basketball, training on simulators are not suitable for treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease, on the contrary, they are contraindicated, since long-term static loads cause high blood pressure and heart pain.
Working with a psychologist carried out if it is needed. If you suffer from depression, stress, or transferred, then, of course, important, and psychological rehabilitation, along with physical therapy. Remember that stress can exacerbate the disease and lead to an exacerbation. That is why it is important the correct psychological rehabilitation.
A very important aspect of rehabilitation of patients undergoing surgery for heart defects - a proper diet and wean yourself from bad habits.
Especially for you diet will develop a dietitian, according to your taste preferences. Of course, from a certain food will have to give. There is less salt and fat and more vegetables and fruits. This is important, since the continued receipt of excess cholesterol in the body is exercise therapy will be ineffective.
As you know, our body itself produces the required cholesterol for him. And with the animal food, we will inevitably get more and extra cholesterol. It is therefore important to limit, especially fatty foods - fatty meat, lard, butter and sour cream. Of course, completely give up fatty foods, it is hardly possible, but sharply limit the intake of fat - by virtue of each.