Metabolic syndrome, also known as insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X, is a collection of metabolic disorders in individuals with a certain constitutional type. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Syndrome includes the following features: intra-abdominal obesity, insulin resistance (increased glucose and insulin in fasting blood) type 2 diabetes dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, low concentrations of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) arterial gimertoniya. Have recently been identified and other metabolic (metabolic) disorders (obesity with intraperitoneal), which can serve as a risk factor for coronary heart disease.
Obesity in itself is not a necessary condition for the development of metabolic syndrome. This refers to the metabolic "obesity" with predominantly intra-adipose tissue accumulation, even in people with normal weight. There is a hypothesis that the primary mechanism of metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance. However, a study from the Framingham Offspring Study in patients without diabetes, it was found that insulin resistance may not be the only factor leading to the development of metabolic syndrome, and there are other independent physiological processes involved in the formation of this pathology.
Although abdominal (intra-abdominal) obesity is often associated with insulin resistance are not fully clear whether the accumulation of adipose tissue intraorganic (in the omentum and mesentery of the intestine) or subcutaneous fat in the abdominal area is associated with the development of insulin resistance. In addition, the volume of a single depot is closely related to the volume of the other, and therefore difficult to determine the role of each in a change in insulin sensitivity. In addition, it is not known, the accumulation of visceral or subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue participates in the development of metabolic syndrome, or it is typical for people with increased risk of metabolic complications of obesity.
Type 2 Diabetes
Likely to increase the spread of type 2 diabetes by 25% worldwide over the past 20 years due to the significant spread of obesity. Increased Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal (intraperitoneal) fat accumulation type - serious risk factors for type 2 diabetes. National Institute of Health data indicate that over two thirds of men and women in the U.S. who suffer from type 2 diabetes have a BMI> 27 kg/m2. Moreover, the risk of diabetes increases linearly as a function of BMI. Among people with a BMI 25,0-29,9 kg/m2 (overweight), 30,0-34,9 kg/m2 (obesity I degree) and> 35 kg/m2 (obese II / III degree) prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 2%, 8% and 13% respectively.
Nurses Health Study data showed that the risk of developing diabetes begins to increase, even in women with normal weight, a BMI over 22 kg/m2. With the increase in intra-abdominal fat mass, waist circumference and the ratio of waist to hip circumference increases the risk of diabetes at any value of BMI. Increase in body weight at a young age increases the risk of developing diabetes. Since men and women 35 - 60 years who at the age of 18-20 years have increased in weight from 5 to 10 kg, the risk of developing diabetes was three times higher than those in which the weight varied in the range of 2 kg.
Obesity, especially abdominal obesity (intraabdominal), is associated with increased levels of triglycerides, low high-density cholesterol concentration and increasing concentration of low-density cholesterol, which is a major factor contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. Most evidence indicates that overweight and obesity increases the concentration of serum total cholesterol and low density, but the numbers associated with BMI differences in concentrations of total cholesterol and low density are more pronounced in people with less weight and age are are reduced.
Data from the National Institutes of Health U.S. have shown that with increasing numbers of men BMI progressively increases the concentration of cholesterol (total cholesterol> 240 mg / dL or 6.21 mmol / l), while among women the prevalence increased cholesterol level was the most high BMI at 25 kg/m2 and 27 kg/m2, and did not increase with further growth figures BMI. Pathological changes in the concentration of lipids (fats) in the serum of obesity is clinically important indicator, as associated with increased risk of developing coronary heart disease.