Inflammatory diseases of the vascular membrane called uveitis. This is a rather serious illness, as they often cause blindness and significant weakening of view (approximately 25% of all blindness). Number of patients with uveitis in recent years has increased by 5 times.
iritis, an inflammation of the iris iridocyclitis, inflammation of the iris and ciliary body rear: choroiditis, choroidal inflammation itself.
The inflammatory process throughout the choroid is panuveit. The process may be involved retina and optic nerve - neyrohoreoretinit.
The prerequisites for the development of uveitis may be genetically determined defects in the immune system, long-term inflammation in the body, pockets of chronic infection, weakening the body in chronic diseases and metabolic disorders.
Uveitis may occur acutely or be chronic with frequent or rare relapses. Infection in the choroid falls under the eye injury, after surgery on the eyeball. Uveitis often arise in corneal ulcers. The source of infection can be acute or chronic foci of infection in the body. If you suspect a patient has uveitis should be carefully examined.
Treatment of uveitis
Treatment of uveitis complicated and lengthy task. Need constant supervision, as a subjective feeling better usually does not correspond to the true state of the process.
In the phase of acute inflammation are assigned broad-spectrum antibiotics, sulfa drugs inside and in the form of eye drops (drops instilled into the eyes for an hour every 3-4 minutes 3 times a day). Applied glucocorticoid, vitamins, enzymes. Be sure to reorganize chronic foci of infection in the body and treatment aimed at correcting the immune system. To reduce the permeability of vascular walls appoint Dicynone a long time, and other drugs to improve the condition of vessels (doksium, prodektin, parmedin).
To suppress the inflammatory response are assigned non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin, phenylbutazone, reopirin). Apply plasmin kallidinogenaza, gordox, carbogen, emoksipin and a wide range of other drugs, the choice is determined by the course of the disease. Appointed and physiotherapy.
Once the acute process subsided, patients need to appoint anti-relapsing treatment twice a year, usually in spring and autumn.
For anterior uveitis include inflammation of the iris (iritis), iris and ciliary body (iridocyclitis) and inflammation of the ciliary body only (cycle). The patient has complaints of pain in the eye, pain during movement of the eyeball, when pressure on the eyeball. Pain worse at night and sometimes can be very pronounced. It may be photophobia, blinking.
Further develop decreased vision, mist before his eyes. Sclera on the periphery of the cornea is red, the color of the paint and the iris, the pupil is due to edema of iris narrows, its reaction to light slow. The form of the pupil may be irregular.
Often formed with the fusion of the iris lens. Sometimes the pupil is quite overgrown. In this case the message is broken between the cameras eye, disturbed outflow of intraocular fluid, intraocular pressure is often reduced. Intraocular fluid may become purulent. All this leads to malnutrition lens opacities and its development of cataracts.
Features of anterior uveitis in children are possible in the absence of complaints, which may hinder timely diagnosis and treatment assignment.
Peripheral uveitis - inflammation of a back of the ciliary body and adjacent the periphery of the choroid (posterior cyclitis, basal uvearetinit, parsplanit). Features of this form of uveitis that frequently ill children and young people and children disease is particularly difficult. At the same inflammatory process goes unnoticed, the complaint in patients minor children may be absent and the disease is detected late in the stage of complications.
Peripheral uveitis may be associated with retinal detachment in the periphery. In the process involves the vitreous, which may manifest clouding of the vitreous body with a sharp breach of visual acuity. Often it is complicated cataract in which the cataract begins with its deep divisions. Another complication may be glaucoma.
Posterior uveitis usually present horioidity or erased, weak, unnoticed by the patient. Pain in the eye does not happen. On examination, fundus detect single or multiple foci of different shapes and sizes with an inflammatory border. In the process involves the retina (retinitis), and the optic disc (papillitis).
Choroiditis is always reflected in visual function. Depending on the location of inflammatory lesions can be detected fallout fields (plots) of, or, if the inflammatory process involves the central part of the fundus may be a sharp decline in vision, when the patient can only distinguish light and darkness.