Epilepsy - a chronic brain disease that is characterized by recurrent seizures. The origin of epilepsy may be different. Thus, isolated traumatic epilepsy (after suffering a head injury), diencephalic (with the defeat of diencephalic structures of the brain), epilepsy after an infection of the brain. It is believed that some of the clinical types of epilepsy may be genetically determined. - For example, the so-called absence seizures (fits in a brief loss of consciousness). If the cause of the seizures can not be identified, then we speak of primary epilepsy.
At the heart of the development of seizures is increased excitation of neurons in the brain. Typically, these neurons form the center of the brain in a certain place. Discover this focus by using electroencephalography (EEG), as well as in certain clinical signs - the nature of seizures, presence or absence of any unusual sensations before the seizure (aura).
According to clinical manifestations of seizures in can be varied - from full-scale seizure with loss of consciousness, with a duration of up to an hour before the attacks of transient abdominal pain while maintaining consciousness.
Speaking in the general classification of epileptic seizures, they are all divided into partial and generalized, and they both can be convulsive or not convulsive. Partial seizures may be in violation of conscience or without changes. If you're having seizures. they can be in one arm or leg, or spread from limb to the body. Generalized seizures are characterized by a mandatory loss of consciousness, and seizures affect both halves of the body symmetrically.
The best known form of epilepsy is a big seizure, according to the classification it belongs to the generalized seizure. His clinic is very specific. A few seconds before the attack may cause the aura - the sensitivity of specific changes in the form of any foreign smell, sound, or sense of taste, perhaps the emergence of visual images or feelings change in their body. They usually have the same aura of a patient with recurrent seizures is the same, and when it appears a person can learn about the approaching attack. For the loss of aura follows the development of consciousness and convulsions. Seizures have a first character of strong tension of the muscles (so-called tonic), and then begin to reduce their periodic "heartbeat" of hands and feet, strong shocks in the body (clonic convulsions).
As a rule, due to the involvement of respiratory muscles spasms, there is a temporary cessation of breathing, patients bitten tongue. been incontinent. The seizure ends with the gradual cessation of seizures. After that the patient is asleep for some time, and on waking can not remember the very moment of attack, and sometimes the events prior to seizure. In some cases, after a sleep seizure does not occur, but on the contrary, there is mental excitement, patients tend to go somewhere, did not immediately respond to hails.
To treat epilepsy should be as soon as possible: this will stop the progression of the disease with the development of specific personality changes. Already after the first attack as soon as possible should be done to diagnose the cause of EEG epilepsy and to identify the localization of the source of excitation of neurons. Selection of treatment is carried out gradually, in relation to specific features of the patient. Anticonvulsants need to take a long time, regardless of the frequency of attacks. It is believed that the treatment of epilepsy canceled only in the case when the attack was not in a period of 3 years or more.