It is proved that nutritional therapy - an integral part of comprehensive treatment after kidney transplantation, contributing to an earlier rehabilitation of the patient. In the early postoperative period are the main objectives of diet therapy: improved postoperative wound healing, reduction in the incidence of infectious complications, prevention of water-electrolyte imbalance with reduced graft function.
In the following a diet designed to restore and maintain the impaired nutritional status, reducing the side effects of immunosuppressive drugs, which in turn increase the risk of steroid diabetes complications in the cardiovascular system, etc.
Appointing clinical nutrition patients after renal transplantation, graft function should be considered. Dietary intake should be as balanced by the number of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, macro-and micronutrients, fluid.
When developing a diet for each patient included sex, weight, age of the patient, the severity of metabolic disorders, physical activity level. High risk for cardiovascular complications occur with increasing body weight. It is therefore necessary to monitor the amount of fat consumed. His daily amount should not exceed 30% of daily energy intake.
The large number and non-optimal ratio of carbohydrates in the diet not only enhances lipid metabolism, but also contributes to the progression of vascular complications in the later stages after kidney transplantation. The total amount of carbohydrates in the diet should be 45-50% of the total caloric intake, with limitation bystrovsasyvaemyh refined sugars and an increase in dietary fiber. The advantage should be given to products of plant origin (cereals, vegetables, fruits).
No less important part in clinical nutrition is to ensure an adequate intake of protein, which is the source of amino acids. Preference should be given to products of animal and vegetable origin (lean meat, poultry, dairy products, beans, etc.). This should take into account the parameters of nitrogen metabolism of the body.
Since long-term immunosuppressive therapy causes an imbalance of micronutrients in these patients, to avoid the development of metabolic abnormalities should consume foods rich in vitamins and trace elements.