Breast cancer (breast cancer) - the most common malignancy in women. It is about one in four cases of cancer in a population determines the leading role of women cancer pathology. The reason for this phenomenon is multifaceted and is covered, including the hormonal dependence as precancer (mastopathy, fibroadenoma) and breast cancer itself.
It is known that estrogen levels in women is gradually increasing, and after 30 years of its stimulating effect on the mammary gland in the presence of genetic damage and other contributing factors may be decisive in the development of breast cancer. In other words, after the initiation phase (first stage of the cancer, the stage of appearance of the mutation), increased hormones contribute to promotion stage of carcinogenesis (stimulating the growth and future changes in mutated cells), which leads to the development of the disease.
There is also a genetic predisposition to cancer, which is easily detected by examining the family tree. In the case of breast cancer among relatives requires careful regular examination. Risk of precancer and cancer of the lower in the absence of abortion, prolonged breast-feeding, in large families.
Breast cancer - a rather heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms. Depending on the type of cancer, its size, position, growth characteristics, presence of metastases and some other parameters will be different and tactics of treatment, and prognosis of the disease. Histological classification of breast cancer include
Specific histologic variants:
carcinoma arising from the cell intraduct fibroadenoma.
medullary carcinoma of the
squamous cell carcinoma
carcinoma of the ethmoid
As can be suspected breast cancer? If in the process of self-detected prostate unbalanced changes, changes its appearance, the appearance of nodules during palpation, discharge from the ducts (especially bleeding), asymmetric changes of skin cancer, you should seek medical advice. But keep in mind that some of the pathology revealed by self-effort, and even by physical examination of the expert, so the diagnosis is usually resorted to mammography (X-ray survey of cancer), and if necessary - to biopsy and other methods.
Treatment of breast cancer may include surgery to remove part or all of the cancer, chemotherapy, radiation therapy. The choice of treatment depends on prognostic factors, which include: the size of the primary tumor, regional lymph node status, presence of distant metastases, the degree of differentiation, hormone receptor status. The volume of surgical intervention is determined by stage of disease and, if possible, carried Organ treatment. The following method - hormone therapy, but it is recognized only effective in half the cases, because not all breast cancers are sensitive to this treatment.
Chemotherapy has recently become more and more aiming and related not only morphological, but also the genetic characteristics of cancer cells. The most modern trend in the treatment of breast cancer, this is the target-therapy, which takes into account the cytogenetic status of the patient, as well as the use of high-tech options for all types of therapy, which makes it possible to improve the quality of treatment against the possible reduction of complications.
Identification of the disease at an early stage increases the opportunities for treatment:
Mastectomy is giving way to organ-saving operations;
complete removal of regional lymph nodes is necessary only when there is metastasis in them;
reduces the amount of exposure;
Chemotherapy is selected on the basis of a number of individual factors;
In other words, today the main trend in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is the maximum individualization of treatment. If earlier the treatment was "maximum tolerable" for a given patient, but now it goes to the "most effective".
What is the prevention of breast cancer? The most common use of secondary prevention, ie Early detection of mastitis, for example, through regular (monthly) self-gland to identify changes in the structure and function. A more reliable method of diagnosis is mammography. After 30 years, preferably every 2 years, and after 40 years, undergo an annual mammogram. Modern digital cameras offer a tiny dose load, comparable to the daily natural background radiation, and the undoubted benefits of the survey, as identified early cancers saves lives. Even more effective is usually the primary prevention aimed at reducing the probability of occurrence of precancer and cancer. So are most modern cytogenetic methods for detection of predisposition to breast cancer (eg, identification of the genes BRCA1 / 2) and, consequently, a complex of preventive measures in accordance with the identified changes.