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Monday, 10.08.2020, 19:40
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Aplastic anemia

Aplastic anemia

Aplastic anemia - a systemic disease characterized by hypo-or aplastic condition of blood, with the defeat of the branches of hematopoiesis, which is expressed normocytic normochromic anemia and related granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia.

Taken to distinguish between two main groups of aplastic anemia:

  • congenital (constitutional Fanconi anemia)
  • acquired as a result of the impact of a number of exogenous factors (drugs, infections, chemical, physical).

Early symptoms of aplastic anemia is

  • generalized weakness
  • fatiguability
  • pain in bones and joints
  • hemorrhagic syndrome (nasal bleeding and hemorrhage into the skin).

Gradually grow pale skin and mucous membranes.

In congenital forms of aplastic anemia has a characteristic skin ashen hue. The liver is somewhat enlarged. Spleen and peripheral lymph nodes were not enlarged. In the blood, signs of anemia normochromic type. The number of reticulocytes decreased, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukopenia with relative lymphocytosis. Thrombocytopenia is sometimes one of the early symptoms and is detected before the appearance of severe anemia.

Bone marrow picture at the initial stage of the disease is characterized by a reactive hyperplasia eritronormoblasticheskogo germ. Further bone marrow gradually emptied, reduced red sprout, increasing the number of cells of lymphoid type.

During the aplastic anemia:
  • acute
  • subacute
  • chronic.
Sometimes there are spontaneous remissions. Prognosis in most cases is poor. A positive effect can be obtained by carrying out an early splenectomy.

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