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Neurology, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Oncology, Obesity, Endocrinology, Vascular surgery - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, description of the disease.

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Saturday, 08.08.2020, 06:54
Main » Oncology » Kidney cancer Diagnosis,Treatment Metastasis 
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Kidney cancer Diagnosis,Treatment Metastasis


Kidney cancer Diagnosis,Treatment Metastasis

The most common type of kidney tumors - renal cell carcinoma. Its share in the structure of malignant tumors is approximately 3%. Tumors of the renal pelvis and ureter are less common, accounting for only 15% of all tumors of the kidneys and ureters. Mesenchymal tumors (sarcomas) are even more rare.


But it should be noted that in the pediatric oncology renal tumors, sometimes reaching 40% of all oncological diseases of childhood.

The etiology of kidney cancer.

The main causes that increase the risk of kidney cancer are:
  • Genetic defects (loss of the third segment of the chromosome)
  • Hereditary diseases (von Hippel-Lindau syndrome)
  • Immunodeficiency states
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Smoking

Histological classification.

There are following types of kidney cancer:
  • renal cell cancer (carcinoma)
  • adenocarcinoma
  • papillary adenocarcinoma
  • tubular carcinoma
  • granular-cell carcinoma
  • clear cell adenocarcinoma (hypernephroma)

Metastasis.

Kidney cancer tends to metastasize and lymphogenous and hematogenous route. For this reason, the metastases are detected in more than half of the patients. The greatest number of metastases detected in the lungs, then in descending order of frequency followed by bone, liver, brain, and liver metastases, and brain are characteristic of late-stage disease.

Clinic for kidney cancer.

The disease in the early stages often goes completely asymptomatic. The signs, indirectly pointing to a possible kidney cancer include:

  • blood in urine
  • the presence of swelling in the lumbar region, detectable by palpation
    deterioration of general condition, weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss
    unwarranted increase in body temperature
  • anemia
  • increase in blood pressure
  • pain in the kidney
  • varicocele (varicose veins of the spermatic cord).



Diagnosis of renal cancer.

An important role in the diagnosis belongs to the methods of medical imaging:

  • Ultrasound
  • X-ray Diagnosis: Radiography (including renal angiography, urography, venokavografiya), 
  • computed tomography
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • radionuclide scintigraphy.


The next step is a diagnostic biopsy of the tumor, but its diagnostic value is limited at times. The picture of blood in metastatic renal cell carcinoma is nonspecific: anemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increased alkaline phosphatase activity. Urine tests can detect red blood cell, leukocyturia, proteinuria.


Treatment.

The main treatment for kidney cancer - surgery. Even in the presence of metastases tend to go for surgery because it is quite significantly extends the life of the patient. Solitary metastases are not a contraindication to surgery.

In the early stages of the possibility of conducting organ-saving operations, in particular preserving the adrenal gland. Obligatory condition of surgical treatment is removal of tumor thrombus from the renal vein and inferior vena cava (their diagnosis performed using ultrasound or computed tomography), as well as the removal of regional lymph nodes in which it was possible metastasis.

Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy are rare, mainly as a palliative treatment methods, as their effectiveness in most cases low. Immunotherapy of tumors using alpha-interferon, interleukin-2, 5-fluorouracil in about half of a positive result and 15% of patients increases the survival time.

Prognosis depends on the stage of tumor and the degree of differentiation of tumor cells. Poor prognosis in patients with metastases in the germination of the renal vein.



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