Computed tomography - a radiological diagnostic method, which consists in the fact that the rays pass through a particular area of the body from different angles. After this information is saved to the computer where the image is processed and shaped slice of tissue at a certain depth. This method is better than just mammography, since mammograms can be nasloyka tissue in the image, resulting in a small tumor can not be seen.
CT scan is usually carried out a series of images authority (in this case, the breast) and further processed by a computer image. CT scan - this method is not invasive (no surgery), safe, and is used in many diseases. Settings for CT are similar to those used for magnetic resonance imaging. Computed tomography is not a screening method of the study. Your doctor may prescribe CT scans if you have an extensive tumor of the breast in order to determine whether the tumor is operable or not due to germination in the chest wall. In addition, CT is used for the assessment of lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bone, brain and spinal cord. Metastatic head CT scan done, abdomen and chest to assess the distribution of metastases and selection of further treatment.
How is the CT
During the CT scan the patient lies on a special plane, which is gradually becoming a smooth cylindrical chamber, where the X-ray emitter and sensor. As the imaging of each slice transmitter and sensor make an arc around the area the patient to be examined. The information from the sensor immediately goes to the computer where it is processed, added to other images, and the result is a complete image of the layer of an organ at a certain depth. On average the procedure takes from 30 to 60 minutes, but can be as high as 2:00. It depends on the amount of research.
Possible complications of computed tomography
Possible complications include the development of CT claustrophobia in some patients. In this case, prior to the study recommended the appointment of calming drugs. In addition, when multiple radiographic (including tomography) research methods have a negligible risk of malignant tumors.
Computed tomography is contraindicated in pregnancy.
Positron emission tomography is a method of tomographic radionuclide studies of internal organs. Currently, PET - a developing diagnostic and research method of nuclear medicine. This method is based on the fact that the tissue specific radiopharmaceutical is administered. It consists of radionuclides, which are characterized by the so-called positron beta-decay. Once the radiopharmaceutical has been introduced conducted registration of so-called "gamma."
PET method allows to determine the following issues:
Are there any tumor cells after radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
Is there a spread of tumor cells to the lymph nodes.
PET has been successfully used in the diagnosis of patients with metastatic cancer. Particularly effective method of PET to assess lymph nodes.
As already indicated, tumor cells have high metabolism. This leads to the fact that they are faster and stronger grasp of the blood injected radiopharmaceutical. Once the radioactive substance is in a tumor cell, it begins to decay. During the collapse of the special form of the particle (quanta), which are detected by special equipment. This method allows to determine the area of suspicious activity of cancer cells.
Unfortunately, positron emission tomography, there are drawbacks: this method can only be used to detect small tumors. In addition, PET - a rather expensive method of diagnosis, it is not all medical centers.