Brain injury occurs when struck in the head or a penetrating injury, which disrupted the function of the brain. The manifestations of brain injury may be small, moderate or severe, depending on the severity of brain injury. Mild manifestations of trauma may consist of a small change in consciousness, while the result of severe trauma can be a loss of consciousness and even death.
Symptoms of brain injury
Depending on the severity of injury, these symptoms can vary and include:
Changes in consciousness
Visual disturbances (diplopia, photophobia, disturbance of eye movement, blindness)
Isolation of CSF (which may be pure or mixed with blood) from the ears or nose Dizziness and impaired coordination
A rare breath in conjunction with high blood pressure
Numbness of certain parts of the body
Violations of the monitoring functions of the bladder and rectum
The most common manifestations of head injuries are bruises and contusions of the brain.
Hematoma - a collection of blood in either of the brain or on its surface. Hematoma can be located in any part of the brain. The accumulation of blood on the dura is called an epidural hematoma. If the blood is between the dura and the arachnoid membrane, the accumulation of blood called a subdural hematoma.
Bruising of the brain - is damage to brain tissue. When considering the microscope these injuries are similar to the same injuries in other areas of the body. These include edema, hemorrhage. The most common injury of the brain located in the front, although it can be in any part of it.
Intracerebral hemorrhage - bleeding into a brain tissue that may be associated with other lesions such as contusion of the brain.
When congestion of blood in the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid and soft shell) suggests subarachnoid hematoma. At the same blood as it spreads a thin layer on the surface of the brain.
Fractures of the skull
In most linear skull fractures, a treatment is needed. In more severe fractures of the skull, along with may be damaged and brain tissue. When fractures of the skull base may be found damage to the nerves, arteries and other structures. If the fracture affects the sinuses, then there may be a selection of the cerebrospinal fluid from the ears and nose. Most of these leaks stop CSF alone. However, sometimes you may need a so-called lumbar drainage - a long thin tube which is introduced in the shell space in the spinal canal. Diagnosis of brain injury
Like all patients with injuries, patients with brain injury should be carefully examined. First estimated the work of the heart and breathing. Next, conducted a rapid assessment of the whole body, and then - a neurological examination. It includes an assessment of the patient on the so-called Glasgow Coma Scale. In addition, the reaction is determined by the pupils to light, their original size and shape on both sides. Radiological study of brain injuries
The gold standard investigation of such patients is computed tomography. Computed tomography of the skull to determine the presence of blood, broken bones. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain trauma is less common because of its preparation takes time. Treatment of brain injury
Treatment of brain injuries is to:
removal of raised intracranial pressure
prevention of cerebral edema
elimination of pressures on brain tissue
Surgical treatment of brain injury
It is used for intracranial hemorrhage. Usually this is carried out so-called osteoplastic craniotomy. To do this, create a flap of soft tissues of the head, which is separated from the skull. Next, a special drill in the skull are a few holes through which the bone is sawn special wire saw. Next, a fragment of bone tipped. At the same surgeon eyes open area of the brain covered with the dura. Next, we seek the source of bleeding, and carried him stop (for example, ligation of the artery). After the bleeding stopped, the integrity of the skull is restored. Cutaneous wound sutured in layers.