Anomalies of the renal vessels are found both independently and with other anomalies of the kidney:
anomalies of the kidneys
location of the anomalies of the kidneys
Anomalies of the renal arteries. The most common extra renal artery. It is usually smaller than the main renal artery and guided to the upper or lower pole of the kidney. Sometimes there are two equivalent renal arteries or multiple (more than two) of the renal artery. These anomalies can not occur on the well-being of the patient. Sometimes they are close to the ureter, and occasionally may compress the urethra, causing a breach of the outflow of urine. Usually do not require treatment.
Anomalies of the location of the renal arteries. Renal artery can deviate from the aorta are not in the usual place on the abdominal aorta, below, from the lumbar or lower - from the iliac artery. These anomalies are also usually do not lead to a breach of patient well-being. They need to be considered when surgical interventions in this area.
Anomalies of form and structure of the renal arteries. Meet an aneurysm (enlargement) of renal arteries. They are usually unilateral. Very rare double-sided aneurysm. Stenosis (narrowing) of the renal arteries due to excessive development of the muscular layer of the artery walls. These anomalies are often the cause of circulatory disorders of the kidney. Aneurysms of the renal vessels may grow and rupture, causing massive bleeding. Renal artery stenosis leads to a decrease in blood supply to the kidneys. If insufficient flow of blood to the kidney, it synthesized the biologically active substances which lead to permanent increases in blood pressure.
In renal hypertension caused by narrowing of the renal arteries used medications: angiotensin receptor blockers or inhibitors of angiotensin 2 and their combination with calcium channel blockers. This treatment is a long, almost a lifetime. But hypertension is still progressing, and the prognosis for the patient's life is poor.
More effective surgical treatment, especially in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Performed balloon dilatation (expansion) of renal artery stenosis. International name of this type of surgery - transcutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Using a special catheter with a balloon, which is carried into the renal artery through the femoral expanding area of stenosis inflating balloon. Surgery gives good results in 80% of patients.
You can also install arterial stent. Most often it is done when the renal artery stenosis in the place of their discharge from the aorta. With the balloon catheter to the site of stenosis, the stent is supplied, a small metal mesh tube, inflate the balloon. The stent is pressed while in the artery wall, and further supports the state of its lumen at the desired level.
If it is impossible angioplasty or stenting is carried out much surgery. Zone restrictions excised, the artery sewn end to end, or put the graft from deep femoral artery or synthetic materials.
Occasionally, if the stenosis is multiple, and virtually no functioning kidney, the kidney is removed.
When renal artery aneurysm is most often performed surgical treatment. Aneurysm is removed, the defect is sutured, or put a patch. After surgical treatment of drug treatment is usually much more efficient. The patient returned to normal life in most cases.
Congenital anomalies of renal veins.
Anomalies of the renal veins. Vienna found extra renal or multiple renal veins. Rarely can manifest violation of the venous outflow and stagnation in the blood supply to the kidneys.
Anomalies in the shape and location of renal veins. Vienna carries blood from the genitals to the right, normally flows into the inferior vena cava could fall into the renal vein. Sometimes it manifests itself a violation of the venous outflow from the genital disorders of blood supply to the kidney.
Donut renal Vienna on the left. It occurs in 17% of the people. Can lead to venous stasis in the kidney. Venous anomalies are common, but the need for their surgical correction is very rare, disorders of blood circulation in the kidney.