Muscle damage - a common, common type of injury in athletes. It is believed that up to 25% of the people involved in sports each year or another traumatic injury of the muscles, therefore, the athletes experienced in the presence of intense physical activity, this figure is closer to 100%.
Ruptures of muscles. Athletes are most often damaged muscle contraction, ie muscles that are at the peak of the contractile phase, and hardly any damage to the phase relaxation. Muscle injuries are usually closed, ie without damaging the skin. Open muscle damage occur much less often, they do not pose difficulties for diagnosis. They detect and sew during the initial debridement. Closed ruptures of muscles may be complete or incomplete. Previously used the term "muscle strain", but now it is almost never used because it is believed that in any case there are discontinuities of individual muscle fibers. Closed ruptures of muscles occur when sudden, unexpected movement of the muscles or reflex contraction as a defensive reaction (fall).
Discontinuities often unprepared to lend themselves to load the muscles, not heated, or vice versa strongly tired. Localization of breaks in the muscles is highly dependent on the sport. By breaking the trapezius muscle leads weightlifting, throwing, volleyball, all kinds of wrestling, rowing, cross-country skiing.
Long back muscles are subject to breaks in dealing with weight lifting, rowing, throwing, skiing (slalom), the divers in the water. These activities, as well as gymnastics, wrestling, volleyball, basketball can contribute to tearing muscles of the shoulder girdle: deltoid shoulder, supraspinatus muscle. Rowing, gymnastics, weightlifting, wrestling characterized by discontinuities bicapital shoulder muscles. Triceps brachii undergoes damage in those who engaged in volleyball, throwing, weightlifting, the divers in the water. It often breaks the quadriceps muscles of the shoulder.
Sports: jumping, running short distances, running hurdles, diving, weightlifting. Other muscles of the hip - extensors susceptible tear runners, gymnasts, wrestlers. Adductor muscles of the thigh often break the players, skiers, volleyball players, basketball players. Calf injury prone runners, jumpers, gymnasts, wrestlers, cross-country skiers.
Treatment of ruptures of muscles. Immediately after the break to make cold. Then, a pain relief. Small partial tears of the muscles treated conservatively. Athletes for a full recovery of muscle function muscle tears more than 25% of the thickness of the muscle should be treated promptly.
If the muscle is treated with a partial rupture is conservative, then to impose the finiteness of plaster cast in the position of relaxing muscle. Carry out physiotherapy and recommended dosage load. For large and complete ruptures of muscles treated promptly. Muscle cross-linked with U-shaped sutures. Sports Traumatology use plastic pieces with thigh fascia or dura mater, as it is considered that the suture cuts through the muscle tissue and fascia allows you to use.
Muscle hernia. Muscle hernia occurs when the injury was ruptured plantar fascia of the muscle. Fascia is the connective tissue sheath covering the muscle. The most common cause rupture and formation of muscle fascia hernia is a direct blow to the muscle. Cases, these breaks and during the start the runners. Occasionally, muscle hernias occur after surgery. Muscle bundles protrudes through the torn fascia and muscle contraction protrusion is formed in the form of a hemisphere. When snooping is flexible, compacted during muscle contraction.
There are muscle hernia is usually in the thigh, the fascia rupture wide hips, and legs. Ordinary people often do not violate such a hernia livelihoods and require no treatment. Athletes in connection with high demands on muscle function, treatment is almost always surgical. Often just make the fascia is difficult or unstable joint. In these cases resort to plastic surgery, the type and amount of which depends on the surgeon and the availability of transplants.
Migelozy. Migelozami called compaction in the form of painful nodules in the muscle. It is believed that seals in the muscle are caused by abnormal loads. In weightlifters, volleyball, tennis, handball, such nodules occur in the muscles of the shoulder girdle. And those athletes who are more strain on the lower extremities (running, jumping, football) migelozy occur in the muscles of the legs, pelvic girdle. The other often painful compression occur in the trapezius muscle, back muscles.
For the prevention of migelozov muscles before heavy load to fully warm up, and after exercise to perform massage. The same applies to massage therapy migelozov, and massage can be painful. Used physiotherapy.