Chlamydia - a disease of urinary tract caused by Chlamydia - intracellular bacteria. Outside the body chlamydia are killed within 1 min at 90-100 ° C, 5 min at 70 ° C (18 ° C and below on the denim retain infectivity up to 2 days), as well as the effects of disinfectants.
Transmitted sexually, at least domestic (through toiletries, linens, contaminated hands). Diagnosed in 30 - 60% of women and 50% of men with nongonococcal inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract. In recent decades, marked increase in chlamydial infections in several countries in one patient with gonorrhea have chlamydia 5.2 patients.
The sources of infection are usually men and women with symptomatic and clinically asymptomatic forms of chlamydial infection. Often combined with trichomoniasis chlamydia, gonorrhea and other bacterial infections.
The agents of the genitourinary system are Chlamydia - Gram-negative bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites with a unique developmental cycle that includes two different in morphology and biological properties of forms of existence of microorganisms, referred to as elementary and initial (reticular) cells. If the stage of elementary cells or infectious stage is adapted to extracellular survival, the body initially is a form of existence of an intracellular parasite - that this stage provides the reproduction of microorganisms.
Chlamydial urogenital very sick man. Notable laboratory animals (mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits) are not susceptible to infection when infected with a variety of ways. Only in some monkeys (baboons, macaques, African green monkeys) can cause urethritis in the short-term entry into the urethra chlamydia isolated from sick people.
The incubation period lasts from 5-7 to 20-30 days. Men primarily affects the urethra (see Fig.), And in the absence of treatment, and other urogenital organs (prostate, Cowper, lacunar prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymis, testes). Infected women more frequently affected the cervical canal, at least - primarily the urethra, many patients develop ascending infection, and the affected uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and peritoneum can become inflamed. Urethral chlamydia can penetrate into the bladder, causing tsistouretrit. Women and gay men are sometimes diagnosed with chlamydial proctitis, often flowing oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic.
Clinical manifestations of urogenital chlamydia are very diverse. There are:
In the acute form in patients revealed hyperemia of the mucous membranes of the urethra, cervix, and sometimes more frequent urination, muco purulent discharge from the urethra, vagina. In subacute and chronic course of illness, these symptoms in men and women are less pronounced, purulent mucus are observed only in the morning. In patients with latent typically do not make complaints, and in the discharge of the urogenital chlamydia are detected.
In men chlamydial urethritis can be complicated orhoepidimitom (56% of patients), prostatitis (46%), vesiculitis (17%) or less parauretritom kuperita. The clinical picture of these complications is similar to gonorrhea.
In women, chlamydia defeat the urethra, Bartholin glands, vagina malosimptomno flows, as well as inflammation of the uterus. Only some patients complain about the weight of the abdomen and low back pain, especially during menstruation. The defeat of the upper female reproductive system occurs clinically as well as similar lesions of other etiologies.
For some patients chlamydia occurs in severe form, in this case, along with urinary tract lesions observed specific changes in the joints, the conjunctiva of the eye, sometimes the skin and mucous membranes of the mouth. There are severe lesions of internal organs Chlamydia: myocarditis, focal glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, neuritis of the peripheral nerves, etc.
Chlamydia often causes infertility in both men and women. In women, the disease affects pregnancy and the newborn can be transmitted.
Treatment of chlamydia
Treatment for chlamydia is carried out as intended and under the supervision of a physician, and lasts three weeks or more. A common prerequisite for successful treatment is the simultaneity of treatment for both spouses or sexual partners, even in cases where chlamydia one of them has not been found. During treatment and follow-up sexual activity is prohibited. For the treatment of antibiotic used in conjunction with non-specific drugs and physiotherapy. Treatment is always tailor made to suit the stage of inflammation, and topical diagnosis, that is, depending on what authority, and to what degree amazed. The patient is considered cured chlamydia, if after treatment for 1-2 months during laboratory studies had not detected chlamydia. The prognosis for a modern and adequate treatment is favorable.
Prevention is mainly in the exclusion of casual sex, personal hygiene, early detection and treatment of patients with chlamydia and chlamydia carriers