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Neurology, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Oncology, Obesity, Endocrinology, Vascular surgery - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, description of the disease.

Saturday, 24.02.2018, 13:19
Main » Gynecology » Thrush - Diagnosis, Treatment 
Thrush - Diagnosis, Treatment

Thrush - Diagnosis, Treatment

Many women think yeast is absolutely harmless, and advertising of modern drugs, even as it frees us from having to go to a gynecologist. Lovely ladies on the TV itself set themselves a diagnosis and prescribe treatment. "Three days, and yeast as had happened!" - They are gossiping over a cup of tea. Thrush (scientifically "Candida") - indeed the disease is not dangerous. If you just do not treat it as described above.

Called "thrush," candida has been known since the time of Hippocrates. Each year, the incidence of vaginal candidiasis, as we have in this country and around the world increases. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis in recent years has increased by 2 times and is estimated by various authors from 26 to 40-45% of the infectious diseases of the lower division of the reproductive system.

The causative agent of candidiasis (thrush) - fungi Candida. Currently there are over 150 species of this genus. The main role in causing the disease is Candida albicans, which is the causative agent of candidiasis in 95% of cases. Along with the wide spread of different kinds of yeast-like fungi in the environment, C.albicans is found exclusively in humans and animals and their environment. According to research this type of fungi encountered in 7% of the samples of dust and 49% of air samples.

Fungus cells are round or oval in shape, their size varies from 1.5 to 10 microns. They live in the environment, and on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes of healthy people. Under the influence of certain factors of fungi can cause disease. The most favorable temperature for growth 21-37 C. Some researchers have noted that at 40 ° C delayed the growth of fungi, and at temperatures above 50C, a complete cell death, boiling for a few minutes leads to the death of fungi. There is evidence that the candida in the body stimulates the production of antibodies.

Candida infection that develops on the background of immunological "breakdowns" in the state of the body, can in turn cause changes in immunological status of the patient. Perhaps the intracellular and extracellular location of fungi, breeding them to the epithelial cells. Penetrating into the epithelial cell, C.albicans parasites in its cytoplasm and nucleus, using the substance of the epithelial cells for their growth and development that leads to the formation of a zone around the fungal cell death of the epithelium. Long from inside the epithelial cells and even multiply in them, surrounded by a dense microcapsule, Candida fungi to some extent protected from the effects of drugs that can cause lack of effectiveness of treatment.

In contrast, sexually transmitted diseases, yeast does not cause contagious bacteria or parasites, bacteria, and yeast-like fungi that live in our bodies from the moment of birth. Getting on the skin of a newborn at the time of its passage through the birth canal mother, fungi quickly colonize the whole body: they live on the skin and nails, mucous membranes of the mouth, intestinal, respiratory, and the birth canal, and even the internal organs of healthy people. As pathogenic bacteria in the nasopharynx, from time to time come under the control of the immune system and cause the common cold, Candida fungi in normal times differ peaceful and accommodating nature. Keep an eye on their behavior, that is, limit the excessive multiplication of, representatives of the "good" microflora - lactobacilli. However, it is just too cold to us, weakened by illness (diabetes, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, vitamin deficiencies), stress, overwork or overuse of antibiotics and hormones, vaginal douching, or other nonsense like "peaceful neighbors" become arrogant aggressors. With the proverbial speed of yeast fungi begin to multiply and become dangerous in large quantities.

In newborns and critically ill usually develop candidiasis of the oral mucosa. The women, whose hands a lot and often in water, usually found Candida nail ridges. In children and obese people fungus Candida, such as mold, can inhabit the folds of skin in the groin, under breasts and between her fingers.

Very often accompanies yeast infection diseases such as chlamydia, trichomonas, gardnerella vaginitis, mycoplasmosis. To assess the overall picture would gynecologist, so you should not diagnose yourself, only on the basis of the familiar sensations. Especially to appoint a medical treatment, as do the energetic ladies of television advertising.

For the "virgin" vaginal yeast infection - not the only option. Militant Candida fungi may get into the vagina and traditional for many diseases, sexually transmitted way - through unprotected sexual intercourse. And not alone, but in the company of any other "allies" - trichomonads and bacteria that cause serious sexually transmitted diseases. In order not to overlook for the itching and discharge, thrush peculiar to relapse, causative agents of sexually transmitted diseases should always consult a gynecologist and conduct a comprehensive survey on the STD. Especially if your conscience is not clear. However, to give you a yeast infection in one day can be, and your regular partner, being a neutral carrier of the disease between the two women. But even if you are absolutely sure that your thrush - "homegrown" and successfully treated for yourself, the next move is a preventive visit to a gynecologist for an earlier date. Because Candida is often the first sign of serious problems the whole body - from the decrease in immunity to ovarian dysfunction, but it's much easier to treat the early stages.

If we talk about the general trends of the steady growth of fungal diseases, then, of course - is a serious environmental changes occurring on our planet in recent decades. Of course, there are physiological systems that protect our body from these harmful effects, especially the immune system. But its capabilities are not limitless.

Vaginal candidiasis is a form known to most women. The first symptom is usually a sharp, fast growing and becoming almost constant itching in the perineum and vagina. Nature endowed woman in particular a large number of nerve endings in this part of the body, and therefore vaginal candidiasis - the most unbearable and delivers the greatest number of problems. Then there are white patches on the mucosa of the vagina and grayish "cheesy" discharge. However, the selections you simply do not notice, because the intense itching calls for intensified measures of hygiene.

Infection is most often localized in the surface layers of the vaginal epithelium. At this level, the infection can "freeze" for a long time due to the fact that the dynamic equilibrium is established between the fungi, which can not penetrate into the deeper layers of the mucous membrane, and the body, which hinders the opportunity, but it can not completely get rid of the parasite. Violation of this balance leads either to an aggravation of the disease, or to recovery.

Some authors believe that in 30-40% of cases, transmission occurs through sexual contact. However, only 15-25% of sexual partners of women with Candida carrier detect fungi. We also know that urogenital candidiasis in women occurs 10 times more likely than muzhchin.Sleduet note that many female representatives suffering from candidiasis is not sexually active living (eg, children and teens, virgins and women, the long-term had sexual intercourse). After sexual contact with a sick woman, genital candidiasis developed in 40% of men. As for women, approximately 80% of sexual partners of men who have had candida lesions of the penis, has developed a fungal infection.

It was also found that the yeast is often combined with other urinary tract infections such as trichomoniasis, gardnerellez, pathogenic cocci, etc. There is evidence that a reservoir and source of fungal infections of the vagina is a gastro-intestinal tract. In finding the fungus in the vagina, they are very often found in feces, with most patients vaginal and intestinal strains were identical. In women, the sexual route of infection Candida fungi is of secondary importance, and in the foreground samoinfitsirovanie from the intestine, as well as domestic or vocational infection.

According to another point of view, the leading role in the development of infection is the activation of infection due to violations of the protective role of normal vaginal microflora, as Candidiasis is often manifested in the use of antibiotics. Thus, according to different authors, antibiotic therapy of different diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, while ignoring the relevant preventive measures, accompanied by the appearance of candidiasis or kandidanositelstvom from 18-40% of patients.

Currently, there are three clinical forms of genital candidiasis:
  • Candida carriage
  • acute urogenital candidosis
  • chronic (recurrent) urogenital candidiasis

For kandidanositelstva, usually characterized by the absence of complaints of patients and severe pattern of disease. However, microbiological studies in the discharge of the vagina in small amounts are found mushrooms. Note that in certain circumstances kandidanositelstvo can go to the expressed form of the disease. In addition, we can not exclude the possibility of transmission of fungi from mother to fetus, the possibility of becoming infected sexual partner.

The acute form of vaginal candidiasis is characterized by a pronounced inflammatory picture: redness, swelling, itching, rashes on the skin and mucous membranes of the vulva and vagina. Duration of acute form of candidiasis is less than 2 months.

The chronic form is characterized by a disease duration of more than 2-3 months. Urogenital candidiasis is characterized by symptoms: heavy or moderate cheesy discharge itching, burning, irritation in the vulva, increased itching during sleep or after the water treatment and intercourse unpleasant odor, worse after sex

Often combined with genital candidiasis candidiasis of the urinary system. It should be noted that Candida urinary tract in pregnant women meets 2-3 times more likely than nonpregnant women. When pregnancy contributes to the development of candidiasis vaginal discharge pH shift to acid side, and hormonal changes in the body.

Diagnosis of thrush

Laboratory diagnosis of thrush has a leading role in the diagnosis of thrush, along with symptoms that are identified on physical examination. A simple method for determining the vaginal smear microscopy is the so-called "smear flora." It allows you to set the total number of bacteria and severity of inflammation of the vaginal mucosa.

In recent years, in clinical practice with great success used methods of DNA (PCR) - diagnosis, which allows high accuracy to identify the presence of the fungus and the presence of "latent infections" - chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, and others, often related thrush. Bacteriological culture microflora of the vagina to determine the cause of the disease, species, number of the agent and the sensitivity of the latter to the antibacterial, antifungal in particular, drugs. Cultural studies is the method of choice and control the effectiveness of treatment. In parallel, smear microscopy, which allows us to estimate the accompanying microflora of fungi, which should depend on the choice of optimal therapy.

Thus, the diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis should be comprehensive, clinical, microbiological, and laboratory methods of preference for a combination of three methods - the culture diagnosis (vaginal discharge sowing), DNA (PCR) and smear.

Treatment of thrush

Treatment of thrush should be comprehensive, phased, include not only getting rid of the fungus, but also the elimination of predisposing factors and treatment of opportunistic diseases. Usually women are the thrush, as a trivial issue.

How justified is this attitude? It is this attitude and the patients and the doctors themselves often leads to an increase in the number of women suffering from chronic, relapsing forms of candidiasis. Generally, if a recurrence of fungal infection in women occur regularly, this is a serious cause for screening for endocrine and other chronic diseases. It is important to take into account the fact that chronic genital candidiasis typically affects the nearby organs and body systems - the bladder, intestines. Therefore, to achieve complete recovery and prevent re-infection need to take antifungal drugs not only locally but also inside.

Unfortunately, the treatment of patients with chronic presents considerable difficulties. Treatment failure may be due to inadequate dosage and duration, as well as insensitivity to the individual or another group of antifungal drugs. It is therefore necessary to carry out bacteriological studies (crops) with the definition of sensitivity to antifungal drugs.

Keep in mind that mushrooms have the ability to quickly adapt and create resistance to the drugs used. It turns out that trust in a known drug treatment for three days (according to advertising) can not? It is difficult to overestimate the damage that brings advertising of drugs. Even if you carefully read the abstract in the box Pimafucin, you will see that the recommended course of treatment for at least a week. In practice, usually at least 10 days during the primary infection, as treatment should continue after the symptoms disappear. Once again I would like to draw your attention to the problem of fungal infection is not simple.

Treatment of candidiasis, particularly chronic or recurrent, should be integrated and phased. First, targeted antifungal treatment is carried out taking into account the bacteriological cultivation. The second stage takes measures that improve the general and local immunity. Sometimes assigned to the so-called probiotics - bacteria preparations containing live cultures of beneficial bacteria that inhibit growth of pathogenic microorganisms and fungi. In the future, prescribers, facilitating the restoration of the normal acidity of the vagina in women. We adjust the intestinal microflora.

It is mandatory that treatment of sexual partner. Dosage and duration of treatment is chosen strictly individually based on many factors, women's health. In the course of treatment, it is desirable and in the future, there must be a diet that limits, especially sugar, limiting carbohydrates, milk, yeast bread, beer, and ensuring adequate intake of protein, vitamins and minerals. In addition it is understandable concern about your health, a woman usually suffers a purely physical suffering. Foremost among them - the unbearable itching in the perineum and vagina, which we have already spoken. Even if you've already started treatment and freedom from disease is not far off, two or three days might still be itching to poison your life.

How to make your life easier before the primary treatment?

Alas, the easiest way to do this does not suit you - doctors should urge the termination of sexual activity for about ten days. Harmful fungi, like cockroaches, temporarily emigrate to the "living space" of your partner, where perezhdut quietly (without causing him significant problems), the entire course of treatment and then once again celebrate the return.

Wash as often as possible, adding to the water pill furatsilina or spoon of baking soda. But the use of potassium permanganate solution and soap is not necessary - the frequent use of them is overdrying mucosa. After the procedure you can use talcum powder or baby powder - it's time to protect you from pursuing an itch.
Eliminate from the diet of sharp, spicy and pickled foods - everything that makes the urine is too "caustic" and may further provoke itch (have an allergic origin). It is better to lean on fresh vegetables, fruits, dairy products, cereals. And indeed it is useful for health.
Avoid the time of the long-term physical exertion, heavy feasts and long stay in the heat - all of which leads to abundant perspiration, diaper rash and skin irritation.
During menstruation, change pads more often - every 4-6 hours regardless of the number of selections. Menstrual flow - suitable environment for bacteria to grow and the immune system is weakened by these days. Tampons better this time not to use.

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