Hypertension is one of the causes of certain diseases of the heart, which are the leading cause of death. Among them:
Coronary heart disease (CHD)
Left ventricular hypertrophy (a condition where the heart muscle thickens.)
What is heart failure
Heart failure - it is not cardiac arrest. This is a condition in which the observed lack of heart pumping function, ie the heart is unable to provide adequate blood flow in the body. This is due either to the weakening of the heart muscle (myocardium), or the loss of elasticity of the heart wall. In heart failure noted an inefficient flow of blood through the vessels, resulting in increased pressure in the heart. This leads to the inability of the heart to deliver oxygen and nutrients from the blood to the tissues. Therefore, the heart in response to this, trying to work harder and more often to compensate for the lack of blood flow. However, over time the heart muscle can not contract with the same force because of the weakness. As a result, the kidneys begin to hold in the body fluid and sodium. This leads to edema of the soft tissues (in the arms, legs) and the stagnation of fluid in the lungs and other organs. There is a so-called congestive heart failure.
Among the reasons leading to the development of heart failure, observed:
Coronary artery disease
Atherosclerosis itself is not a direct cause of heart failure, but the consequences to which it leads (among them, ischemic heart disease and hypertension) may be a cause of heart failure.
For example, in coronary blood circulation in the heart, and, consequently, in the myocardium. The result is a decrease in cardiac contractility.
Myocardial infarction and eventually leads to heart failure. Necrotic myocardial tissue that remains after a heart attack, gradually rumen. A scar, as you know, does not have the flexibility that the old heart tissue, causing a failure.
If hypertension is marked increase in the so-called total peripheral vascular resistance (PR). As a result, the heart has to work harder. This leads to a compensatory thickening of the left ventricular myocardium (remember how the ventricle "drives" the blood of almost the entire body). This thickening is called hypertrophy. Over time, this work of the heart muscle is weakened and there is heart failure.
Manifestations of heart failure are:
Shortness of breath, which increases during exercise,
Swelling, mostly in the legs,
Shortness of breath while lying down (we'll explain what it is connected)
Nocturia - frequent urination at night (it is not associated with prostate problems!)
Explain why patients with heart failure, increased shortness of breath and feeling worse in the supine position, and improved in a sitting position. The fact that in the supine position facilitated the flow of blood to the heart, and, consequently, increases the load on it. In the sitting position as if the blood flowing to the lower extremities, resulting in reduced load on the heart.
What is coronary heart disease
Hypertension may also be the cause of coronary heart disease. With the deterioration of coronary blood flow in coronary arteries, which are responsible for blood flow to the heart. CHD is usually the result of atherosclerosis and narrowing of the lumen of the coronary artery atheromatous plaques. Threatening complication of coronary artery disease is myocardial infarction. This is a condition in which the observed sudden deterioration of blood flow in coronary arteries, resulting in the absence of adequate and timely initiation of treatment, necrosis of cardiac muscle tissue.
The manifestations of coronary heart disease:
Chest pain, which can be given in the left arm, shoulder, the left half of the lower jaw or neck.
Chest pain accompanied by nausea, sweating, shortness of breath and dizziness.
Fatigue and weakness.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - a condition in which the observed thickening. It should be noted that in contrast to myocardial hypertrophy, which may arise, for example, for the reason of hypertension, the cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is unknown, and with high blood pressure is not connected. This disease can lead to heart valve disease, which is manifested heart failure.
Among the manifestations of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:
Shortness of breath,
Treatment of heart disease based on the treatment of hypertension, which is their cause.
There are various different groups of drugs:
Calcium channel blockers,
Angiotensin II receptor blockers
In addition, it is important to change and lifestyle: Diet: in the presence of heart failure to reduce the recommended daily salt intake to 2 grams. Eat more foods rich in fiber and potassium. Limit the total number of calories in order to normalize the weight in obesity. Restrict your diet to foods containing refined sugar, saturated fat and cholesterol.
Monitor your weight. Engage in regular physical exercise (unless contraindicated by a doctor).
Quit smoking and drinking.
In addition, there is a surgical treatment of heart disease. For example, to restore blood flow in coronary arteries, coronary bypass surgery is performed. In heart failure, combined deficiency valve operations are to replace them. Widespread also balloon angioplasty and stenting, in which a special catheter with lumen expansion is carried narrowed vessel.