Dystrophy, degeneration or abiotrophy - is the most common disease of the retina. Dystrophy are hereditary or acquired origin. Retinal dystrophy are often the first sign of any systemic diseases (metabolic disorders, endocrine disease, mitochondrial disease).
Hereditary retinal dystrophy can occur in the first months of life or develop very slowly. Patients usually complain of a worsening of twilight vision, discomfort when looking at the light. May arise flash before my eyes (fotopsiya). Sometimes things can see distorted (metamorfopsiya). Patients may experience difficulty in moving the ladder, especially in low light, across the street.
During dystrophy usually slowly progressive and ultimately blindness occurs.
Pigmentary dystrophy refers to a peripheral retinal dystrophy and is hereditary. This is the most common hereditary diseases of the retina.
With this type of dystrophy is defeat the retina. Initially suffer sticks, then gradually involved in the process cones. Affects both eyes. The first complaint of patients is a violation of twilight vision (night blindness). Patients with poorly oriented at dusk and in low light. Later gradually narrowed field of vision.
The disease can begin in childhood, but sometimes the first signs appear only in the second half of life. On the back of the eye a few years after the onset of complaints may be a normal picture. Then there are pigment deposits of dark brown color. These deposits are sometimes called "bone cells." Gradually, the number of "bone cells" is increased, increasing their size, foci coalesce and spread over the retina and are close to the center of the fundus.
As the progression of visual field more and more narrow, twilight vision deteriorates. Gradually narrowed blood vessels, optic disc becomes pale, there is atrophy of the optic nerve. May develop cataracts, retinal detachment. Vision gradually decreases to 40-60 years of blindness occurs.
Treatment of pigmentary retinal dystrophy. Prescribers improve the nutrition and blood supply to the retina and optic nerve. Courses twice a year. Treatment is usually not effective. At present, surgical treatment developed a partial transfer bands of the eye muscles in the area of choroidal blood flow to improve the eye.
Scatter white retinal dystrophy
Scatter white retinal degeneration or retinal dystrophy belotochechnaya usually occurs in childhood and progresses with age. This disease is caused by hereditary as well. Patients complain of blurred vision at twilight.
Gradually, there is narrowing of the visual field. On examination, fundus exhibit numerous white foci, measuring about 2-mm, usually on the periphery of the retina. Gradually sclerosis of retinal vessels. There is atrophy of the optic nerve.
Treatment of white spot macular degeneration. Prescribers to improve the nutrition and blood supply to the retina and optic nerve.
Shtargardta disease, Juvenile macular degeneration or retinal degeneration youth center - due to hereditary disease, which begins in the preschool years and gradually progresses to the disappearance of central vision, and slow development of blindness.
At the age of 4-5 years in a child there are complaints discomfort when looking at the light, photophobia. The patient sees better in the dark, and not in good light. The students already show a decrease in central vision loss appear central visual field. In the fundus of the central parts show yellow or brown spots. In the later stages in the central parts of the retina is formed hearth atrophy, and eventually optic atrophy.
Treatment of the disease Shtardgardta. Can not cure disease. To maintain the function of prescribers, improve the blood supply and nutrition of the retina. The techniques of stimulation of the retina low-energy infrared laser.
Best disease or macular degeneration yolk. This is a hereditary disease of the retina begins in childhood. In the central fovea of the retina (the area of best vision) appears the formation of yellow color, resembling a cyst. It is believed that it looks like a chicken egg yolk. Education is filled with fluid. Vision of the cyst can be reduced slightly. But if there is a rupture cyst formation in the retina hemorrhage. Vision is falling sharply.
Best treatment of disease. Prescribers, reinforcing the vessel wall (Dicynone), antioxidants, inhibitors of prostaglandin
Strandberg syndrome Grenblad
Strandberg syndrome Grenblad-or retinal angioid band - this is due to hereditary retinal disease characterized by vascular disease, accompanied by inflammatory changes in the vascular wall.
In addition to retinal lesions in patients arises skin atrophy, a disorder of blood circulation in the vessels of the heart, lower limbs, the brain. In the retina, there are reddish-brown stripes, which explains the appearance of choroidal ruptures. Sight down at the break.
Treatment of retinal angioid bands. Appointed Angioprotectors (Dicynone) courses, for a long time, anti-oxidants (emoksipin). Performed laser photocoagulation of the lesions.
Senile or senile macular degeneration
Senile or senile macular degeneration - occur in patients over 60 years and are considered as genetically conditioned. At the beginning of the disease there are small foci of depigmentation on the background of these lesions appear more solid education - friends, there is atrophy of the retina in these places.
Then the retina swells, there are areas of retinal detachment. Vision at the same time can be reduced slightly. But if the retina is torn, the vision is falling sharply. Patients complain of a sharp decline in vision, mist, falling out of plots. After that formed on the retina scarring, vision and considerably reduced.
Treatment of Cyanide macular degeneration. Prescribers to improve blood circulation and supply of retina, retinal stimulation low-energy laser radiation is sometimes a direct laser photocoagulation